Monday, February 24, 2020

Characteristics of the Modern Bureaucracy Coursework

Characteristics of the Modern Bureaucracy - Coursework Example The administration includes all state functional organs, and it is quite significant influencing the vast portion of the society in the modern world (Scheidel, 2014). Bureaucracy has several roles in the public life since it keeps the government functional. It affects the implementation of law and policies made by elected officials within the government. It also provides the necessary administrative functions like collecting fees, issuing permits and licenses. Bureaucratic administration conducts government operations by regulating the various performances of state organs (Findly, 2014). Since the bureaucracy deals closely with the governmental issues, it would not be easier to hire and stop the civil servants according to their performance in their duties. It is mainly because the bureaucratic workers need specialized training, which cost the government a lot of money to sponsor and maintain. The high performing civil servants should get the merit-based compensation like their counterparts in the private sector since they have skills and experience to deliver well. The private sector consists of privately owned organizations that are not part of the government such as the non-profit and profit corporations. The public sector consists of government-owned institutions like the federal, provincial, state, or municipal governments. In the private sector, there is greater fluidity in job changing and flexibility in pay rise than in the public sector that is its importance over the public sector (Eyben & Moncrieffe,

Friday, February 7, 2020

Ideology And International Relations In The Modern World Case Study

Ideology And International Relations In The Modern World - Case Study Example The inter-reactions between other countries are only for settling disputes between themselves, but at the same time, the main question to be kept in mind is the choice of the monarch. There are many other factors which should influence the decisions of individual countries, but all countries want to be independent first and effective for the improvement of a lot of their people and other people afterward. Till a few years back, there were two powers with one situated in Washington and the other in Moscow and they could not afford to fight with each other. This led them to battles in absentia in the Third World and those were among the countries that were supported by one of the two superpowers. This led to conflicts among the two for the political allegiance of Asians, Africans, or Latin Americans. This was the method of promotion of the two so-called ideologies - capitalism or communism. The only possible alternative, which existed in places where these conflicts were not desired, w as the Cold War. (Cassels, 1996, p. 207) Yet the development or reactions of countries were dependants not on their benefits, but the desire of the two leaders. Today, the conflict of the state has deteriorated further and all are based on constitutions which define the political authorities of the country, or the countries within the area. These consist of states, countries dependant on other states and even international organizations some of whom are even for the commercial benefit of groups of shareholders. It is they who control trade, control the flow of money and investment within the area, invade other countries within the area, ally with some groups for the benefit of their masters, intervene in the ongoing civil conflicts within other states, etc.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Unity-Mountain Climbing Competition from Shibo Essay Example for Free

Unity-Mountain Climbing Competition from Shibo Essay Preparation for reading: We love the shibo, love the shibo vibrant, love the big stage of the shibo, love the shibo unity, love every employee from shibo. Mountain climbing competition held in Gongyi Fuxi Mountain is just a miniature of shibo.. On the steps of spring, the Mountaineering climbing Competition jointly organized by shibo International Trade Department and e-commerce Department held in Gongyi Fuxi Mountain on April 3, 2012. the company attaches great importance to the activities, Dong Maosheng, the General manager of company jointly participate in the mountaineering game. With the order of â€Å"Ready, Go! †, everybody sprints to the Fuxi Mountain â€Å"peak†. In the game, players vied with each other, reflecting the courage first to the sense of competition and hard work of consciousness. at the same time, they help each other in the game, hand in hand, showing a good team spirit . After 30 minutes of intense competition, everybody arrived in end one by one. , company leadership comrade issued souvenirs. After mountain climbing competition, The general manager Dong Mao Cheng represent the company leadership to encourage everyone that quarter fully approved. He hope everyone strengthen the collective consciousness, sense of innovation to improve the cohesion and combat effectiveness and execution in future work . At the same time, he hope that each staff member can be fully and improve their quality, multi-skill all-rounder. The event will not only exercise everyone’s fitness, ease the work pressure, and promote communication between employees, but also to create a healthy, progressive and positive team atmosphere.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Feedback Stress: Does Auditory Feedback Negatively Affect Performance o

In his historic study, Stroop found that reading names of colors interfered with individuals’ ability to name the ink color the word was printed in when the two differed (i.e., the word â€Å"BLUE† written in red ink) (1935). However, the basis of this phenomenon can be traced back to Cattell who found that naming colors and pictures took twice as long to accomplish than reading the word these colors or pictures represented (1886). He concluded that this was due to reading being an automatic process while identifying colors or pictures requires a conscious effort (Cattell, 1886). MacLeod (1991) reflects that it was Cattell’s work which strongly influenced future psychologist including Stroop. In his experiment, Stroop investigated how the reaction time to name colors increased when it conflicted with the automatic process of reading. He broke down his experiment into three parts. In the first, he tested how reading the name of a color printed in a different ink color (i.e., BLUE) differed from reading the name of a color printed in black ink (i.e., BLUE). The difference between the name of the color and the ink color it was printed in caused a slight interference resulting in an increased reaction time of 2.3 seconds (Stroop, 1935). In the second part of his experiment, Stroop (1935) looked at reaction time differences between naming the color of solid blocks (i.e., ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"  ) versus naming the color of the ink not the name of the color (i.e., responding â€Å"RED† for BLUE). He found that participants required 74% more time to name the color of the ink when it did not agree with the name of the color (Stroop, 1935). Stroop concluded that it was the interference between the automatic process of reading the names of the colored w... ...oop: An interference task specialized for functional neuroimaging – validation study with functional MRI. Human Brain Mapping, 6(4), 270-282. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1998)6:4 Cattell, J. M. (1886). The time it takes to see and name objects. Mind, 11(41), 63-65. MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop Effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 163-203. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.163 Richards, A., French, C. C., Johnson, W. Naparstek, J., & Williams, J. (1992). Effects of mood manipulation and anxiety on performance of an emotional Stroop task. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 479-491. Shor, R. E. (1975). An auditory analog of the Stroop test. Journal of General Psychology, 93, 281-288. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643-662.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Project on Demat Account

The term Demat, in India, refers to a dematerialised account. For individual Indian citizens to trade in listed stocks or debentures. The Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) requires the investor to maintain a Demat account. In a demat account shares and securities are held in electronic form instead of taking actual possession of certificates. A Demat Account is opened by the investor while registering with an investment broker (or sub broker). The Demat account number which is quoted for all transactions to enable electronic settlements of trades to take place.Access to the demat account requires an internet password and a transaction password as well as initiating and confirming transfers or purchases of securities. Purchases and sales of securities on the Demat account are automatically made once transactions are executed and completed. | | Advantages of Demat The demat account reduces brokerage charges, makes pledging/hypothecation of shares easier, enables quick ownership of securities on settlement resulting in increased liquidity, avoids confusion in the ownership title of securities, and provides easy receipt of public issue allotments.It also helps you avoid bad deliveries caused by signature mismatch, postal delays and loss of certificates in transit. Further, it eliminates risks associated with forgery, counterfeiting and loss due to fire, theft or mutilation. Demat account holders can also avoid stamp duty (as against 0. 5 per cent payable on physical shares), avoid filling up of transfer deeds, and obtain quick receipt of such benefits as stock splits and bonuses. Indian Market ScenarioIndian capital market has seen unprecedented boom in its activity in the last 15 years in terms of number of stock exchanges, listed companies, trade volumes, market intermediaries, investor population, etc. However, this surge in activity has brought with it numerous problems that threaten the very survival of the capital markets in the long run, most of whic h are due to the large volume of paper work involved and paper based trading, clearing and settlement. Until the late eighties, the common man kept away from apital market and thus the quantum of funds mobilized through the market was meager. A major problem, however, continued to plague the market. The Indian markets were drowned in shares in the form of paper and hence it was problematic to handle them. Fake and stolen shares, fake signatures and signature mismatch, duplication and mutilation of shares, transfer problems, etc. The investors were scared and were under compensated for the risk borne by them. The century old system of trading and settlement requires handling of huge volumes of paper work.This has made the investors, both retail and institutional, wary of entering the capital market. However, lack of modernization become a hindrance to growth and resulted in creation of cumbersome procedures and paper work. However, the real growth and change occurred from mid-eightie s in the wake of liberalization initiatives of the Government. The reforms in the financial sector were envisaged in the banking sector, capital market, securities market regulation, mutual funds, foreign investments and Government control.These institutions and stock exchanges experienced that the certificates are the main cause of investors` disputes and arbitration cases. Since the paper work was not matching the rapid growth so there was a need for a better system to ensure removal of these impediments. Government of India decided to set up a fully automated and high technology based model exchange that could offer screen-based trading and depositories as the ultimate answer to all such reforms and eliminate various bottlenecks in the capital market, particularly, the clearing and settlement system in stock exchanges. 1] A depository in very simple terms is a pool of pre-verified shares held in electronic mode which offers settlement of transactions in an efficient and effective way. Object Of Demat System India has adopted this system in which book entry is done electronically. It is the system where no paper is involved. Physical form is extinguished and shares or securities are held in electronic mode. Before the introduction of the depository system by the Depository Act, 1996, the process of sale, purchase and transfer of shares was a huge problem and the safety perspective was zero.Demat Benefits The benefits are enumerated as follows: . Its a safe and convenient way to hold securities . Immediate transfer of securities is there . There is no stamp duty on transfer of securities . Elimination of risks associated with physical certificates such as bad delivery, fake securities, delays, thefts etc. . There is a major reduction in paperwork involved in transfer of securities,reduction in transaction cost etc. . No odd lot problem, even one share can be sold thus there is advantage .Change in address recorded with DP gets registered with all companies in which investor holds securities electronically eliminating the need to correspond with each of them separately; †¢ Transmission of securities is done by DP eliminating correspondence with companies; †¢ Automatic credit into demat account of shares, arising out of bonus/split/consolidation/merger etc. †¢ Holding investments in equity and debt instruments in a single account. Benefit to the Company The depository system helps in reducing the cost of new issues due to less printing and distribution cost.It increases the efficiency of the registrars and transfer agents and the Secretarial Department of the company. It provides better facilities for communication and timely services with shareholders, investor etc. Benefit to the Investor The depository system reduces risks involved in holding physical certificated, e. g. , loss, theft, mutilation, forgery, etc. It ensures transfer settlements and reduces delay in registration of shares. It ensures faster communication to investors. It helps avoid bad delivery problem due to signature differences, etc. It ensures faster payment on sale of shares. No stamp duty is paid on transfer of shares.It provides more acceptability and liquidity of securities. Benefits to Brokers The depository system reduces risk of delayed settlement. It ensures greater profit due to increase in volume of trading. It eliminates chances of forgery – bad delivery. It increases overall of trading and profitability. It increases confidence in investors. Demat conversion Converting physical holding into electronic holding (dematerialising securities) In order to dematerialise physical securities one has to fill in a DRF (Demat Request Form) which is available with the DP and submit the same along with physical certificates one wishes to dematerialise.Separate DRF has to be filled for each ISIN Number. The complete process of dematerialisation is outlined below: †¢ Surrender certificates for dematerialisation to your de pository participant. †¢ Depository participant intimates Depository of the request through the system. †¢ Depository participant submits the certificates to the registrar of the Issuer Company. †¢ Registrar confirms the dematerialisation request from depository. †¢ After dematerialising the certificates, Registrar updates accounts and informs depository of the completion of dematerialisation. †¢ Depository updates its accounts and informs the depository participant. Depository participant updates the demat account of the investor. Demat Options Banks score over others Around 200 â€Å"depository participants† (DPs) offer the demat account facility. A comparison of the fees charged by different DPs is detailed below. But there are three distinct advantages of having a demat account with a bank — quick processing, accessibility and online transaction. Generally, banks credit your demat account with shares in case of purchase, or credit your savi ngs accounts with the proceeds of a sale on the third day. Banks are also advantageous because of the number of branches they have.Some banks give the option of opening a demat account in any branch, while others restrict themselves to a select set of branches. Some private banks also provide online access to the demat account. So, you can check on your holdings, transactions and status of requests through the net banking facility. A broker who acts as a DP may not be able to provide these services. Fees Involved There are four major charges usually levied on a demat account: Account opening fee, annual maintenance fee, custodian fee and transaction fee. All the charges vary from DP to DP. Account-opening feeDepending on the DP, there may or may not be an opening account fee. Private banks, such as HDFC Bank and UTI Bank, do not have one. However, players such as ICICI Bank, Globe Capital, Karvy Consultants and the State Bank of India to do so. But most players levy this when you re -open a demat account, though the Stock Holding Corporation offers a lifetime account opening fee, which allows you to hold on to your demat account over a long period. This fee is refundable. Annual maintenance fee This is also known as folio maintenance charges, and is generally levied in advance. Custodian feeThis fee is charged monthly and depends on the number of securities (international securities identification numbers — ISIN) held in the account. It generally ranges between Rs 0. 5 to Rs 1 per ISIN per month. DPs will not charge custody fee for ISIN on which the companies have paid one-time custody charges to the depository. Transaction fee The transaction fee is charged for crediting/debiting securities to and from the account on a monthly basis. While some DPs, such as SBI, charge a flat fee per transaction, HDFC Bank and ICICI Bank peg the fee to the transaction value, subject to a minimum amount.The fee also differs based on the kind of transaction (buying or sel ling). Some DPs charge only for debiting the securities while others charge for both. The DPs also charge if your instruction to buy/sell fails or is rejected. In addition, service tax is also charged by the DPs. In addition to the other fees, the DP also charges a fee for converting the shares from the physical to the electronic form or vice-versa. This fee varies for both demat and remat requests. For demat, some DPs charge a flat fee per request in addition to the variable fee per certificate, while others charge only the variable fee.For instance, Stock Holding Corporation charges Rs 25 as the request fee and Rs 3 per certificate as the variable fee. However, SBI charges only the variable fee, which is Rs 3 per certificate. Remat requests also have charges akin to that of demat. However, variable charges for remat are generally higher than demat. Some of the additional features (usually offered by banks) are as follows. Some DPs offer a frequent trader account, where they charge frequent traders at lower rates than the standard charges.Demat account holders are generally required to pay the DP an advance fee for each account which will be adjusted against the various service charges. The account holder needs to raise the balance when it falls below a certain amount prescribed by the DP. However, if you also hold a savings account with the DP you can provide a debit authorisation to the DP for paying this charge. Finally, once you choose your DP, it will be prudent to keep all your accounts with that DP, so that tracking your capital gains liability is easier.This is because, for calculating capital gains tax, the period of holding will be determined by the DP and different DPs follow different methods. For instance, ICICI Bank uses the first in first out (FIFO) method to compute the period of holding. The proof of the cost of acquisition will be the contract note. The computation of capital gains is done account-wise. Opening an account Steps involved in o pening a demat account First an investor has to approach a DP and fill up an account opening form.The account opening form must be supported by copies of any one of the approved documents to serve as proof of identity (POI) and proof of address (POA) as specified by SEBI. Besides, production of PAN card in original at the time of opening of account has been made mandatory effective from April 1, 2006. All applicants should carry original documents for verification by an authorized official of the depository participant, under his signature. Further, the investor has to sign an agreement with DP in a depository prescribed standard format, which details rights and duties of investor and DP.DP should provide the investor with a copy of the agreement and schedule of charges for their future reference. The DP will open the account in the system and give an account number, which is also called BO ID (Beneficiary Owner Identification number). The DP may revise the charges by giving 30 days notice in advance. SEBI has rationalised the cost structure for dematerialisation by removing account opening charges, transaction charges for credit of securities, and custody charges vide circular dated January 28, 2005.Further, SEBI has vide circular dated November 9, 2005 advised that with effect from January 9, 2006, no charges shall be levied by a depository on DP and consequently, by a DP on a Beneficiary Owner (BO) when a BO transfers all the securities lying in his account to another branch of the same DP or to another DP of the same depository or another depository, provided the BO Account/s at transferee DP and at transferor DP are one and the same, i. e. identical in all respects.In case the BO Account at transferor DP is a joint account, the BO Account at transferee DP should also be a joint account in the same sequence of ownership. Disadvantages of Demat The disadvantages of dematerialization of securities can be summarised as follows: Trading in securities may becom e uncontrolled in case of dematerialized securities. It is incumbent upon the capital market regulator to keep a close watch on the trading in dematerialized securities and see to it that trading does not act as a detriment to investors.The role of key market players in case of dematerialized securities, such as stock-brokers, needs to be supervised as they have the capability of manipulating the market. Multiple regulatory frameworks have to be confirmed to, including the Depositories Act, Regulations and the various By-Laws of various depositories. Additionally, agreements are entered at various levels in the process of dematerialization. These may cause anxiety to the investor desirous of simplicity in terms of transactions in dematerialized securities.However, the advantages of dematerialization outweigh its disadvantages and the changes ushered in by SEBI and the Central Government in terms of compulsory dematerialization of securities is important for developing the securities market to a degree of advancement. Freely traded securities are an essential component of such an advanced market and dematerialization addresses such issues and is a step towards the advancement of the market. Transfer of Shares between DPs To transfer shares, we need to fill the Depository Instruction Slip Book (DIS).Firstly we need to check, whether both Demat account's Depository Participant is same or not(CDSL or NSDL) If both of them are different, then we need an INTER Depository Slip (Inter DIS). If they are same, then we need INTRA Depository Slip (Intra DIS). For example: If we have one Demat account with CDSL and other Demat account with NSDL, then we need an Inter DIS. Generally, brokers issue Intra DIS, so do check with broker. Once we identify the correct DIS, fill the relevant information like scrip name INE number quantity in words and figures nd submit that DIS for the transfer to the broker with signatures.The transferor broker shall accept that DIS in duplicate a nd acknowledge receipt of DIS on duplicate copy. Do try to submit that DIS when market is on. Accordingly, date of submission of DIS and date of execution of DIS can be same or a difference of one day is also acceptable. For transfer, you shall also pay the broker some charges. Remember: DIS is almost like a cheque book. Accordingly, it can not be misused if issued blank. So deposit only a completely filled in Slip to broker. Do cut out unfilled rows so that none can fill them later on.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Optimizing the Later Years of Life - 800 Words

Optimizing the Later Years of Life Elements of Successful Aging One might say that it is impossible to define successful aging in one word. This is because there are numerous components to an enhanced quality of life that leads to successful aging. Individuals who age successfully are healthy, energetic people who lead active lives. More specifically, by staying healthy, fit, and engaged with life, these people grow old to contribute to society, which enables them to remain socially involved with other people creating a life filled with utmost satisfaction. Unfortunately, when one nears the age of 30, their physical and mental capabilities begin to decline. However, luckily, this process can be detained. In the book â€Å"Successful Aging,†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦Maintaining Physical Function It is inevitable that as one ages their physical and mental abilities begin to deteriorate, however this is avoidable by simply making the time to perform regular moderate exercises. Such examples include walking, jogging, dancing, hiking, and swimming. Common aerobics such as these, are effective in providing physical strength, balance, and overall wellness. Additionally, the individual will be less likely to struggle in preforming his daily tasks independently, and will be able to prevent accidents such as falling. Furthermore, maintaining a proper diet is an essential quality required for successful aging. Older people living alone are usually unable to get their proper nutrition due the their lack of independence. Fortunately, if they have a caregiver, there is someone to provide nutritious and appealing meals. Also, they are more prone to dehydration, therefore, they should be drinking at least one and half to two liters every day. Well-balanced meals that incorporate all the essential nutrients will more likely give older person energy to sustain their physical exercise. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Procesem przebiegajacym w czasie - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 28 Words: 8255 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Wstep 1 Introduction Rozwj zawodowy jest procesem przebiegajacym w czasie w ramach oglnego rozwoju czlowieka. Professional development is the process on time, within the overall human development. Realizacja wszystkich potencjalnych mozliwosci wynika z naturalnego popedu do rozwoju, do wzrostu, do osiagniecia swojej pelni. Implementation of all potential opportunities due to the natural impulse to development, to growth, to achieve its full. Teorie rozwoju zawodowego podkreslaja,ze ten proces rozpoczyna siew dziecinstwie i trwa do wieku dojrzalego, a jest ciagiem decyzji uwarunkowanych rznymi czynnikami w tym biologicznymi, psychologicznymi, ekonomicznymi a takze spolecznymi. Theories of professional development emphasize that this process begins in childhood and continues into adulthood, and is a sequence of decisions conditioned by various factors including the biological, psychological, economic and social. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Procesem przebiegajacym w czasie" essay for you Create order Na temat rozwoju zawodowego jest wiele pogladw, przy czym na uwagezaslugujate, ktre dotyczacech, satysfakcji, potrzeb, wydatkowania energii, wyboru i decyzji a takze zachowan zawodowych, ciaglosci zawodowej oraz miejsca i przestrzeni. On the professional development of many ideas, but they deserve attention, which relate to the characteristics, satisfaction, needs, energy expenditure, choice and decision behavior and professional lives, and the continuity of place and space. Okreslenie rozwoju zawodowego w oparciu o wieloletnie badania podaje K. Czarnecki jako spolecznie pozadany proces przemian kierunkowych jednostki ( ilosciowych i jakosciowych, ktre warunkuja jej aktywny i spolecznie oczekiwany udzial w przeksztalcaniu oraz doskonaleniu samego siebie i przez to swojego otoczenia materialnego, spolecznego i kulturowego. Determination of professional development based on long-term study gives K. Czarnecki, as socially desirable transition process directional unit (quantitative and qualitative, which condition the expected active and socially involved in the transformation and improvement of himself and his environment through the physical, social and cultural development. Istota zachowanw warunkach wymogwi zadan zawodowych dotyczy zbioru regul przeksztalcania ukladu czlowiek-praca i okresleniu ich wplywu na przebieg rozwoju czlowieka i sukces zawodowy, ktrego miara jest indywidualnie pojmowana satysfakcja. The essence of behavior in terms of professional requirements and duties applicable to a set of rules for transforming the human-work and identify their influence on the course of human development and professional success, a measure of satisfaction is individually conceived. Zyjemy w czasach kultu fachowosci tzw. We live in a cult called professionalism. profesjonalizmu i gospodarki rynkowej, racje spoleczne i osobiste przemawiaja wiec aby zdobywac wysokie kwalifikacje zawodowe oraz zabiegac o szanse rozwoju dla siebie i innych. professionalism and a market economy, social and personal reasons so to speak earn high professional qualifications and seek a development opportunity for themselves and others. Wszystkie teorie rozwoju zawodowego starajasiewytlumaczyc, dlaczego ludzie dokonujaokreslonych wyborw zawodowych, przy czym w literaturze pojawily sie dopiero w latach piecdziesiatych , choc juz na poczatku XX wieku Frank Parson opisal proces wyboru kariery zawodowej. Career development theories seek to explain why people make certain career choices, and in the literature appeared only in the fifties, although at the beginning of the twentieth century, Frank Parsons described the process of career choice. Oglna charakterystyka glwnych teorii rozwoju zawodowego 2 General characteristics of the major theories of professional development Teoria cech i czynnikw The theory of characteristics and factors Teoria cech i czynnikw podkresla odrebnosc i wyjatkowosc kazdego czlowieka. The theory of characteristics and factors emphasizes the separateness and uniqueness of each person. Pierwsi jej zwolennicy zakladali, ze zdolnosci i cechy poszczeglnych osb mozna zmierzyc w sposb obiektywny, a nastepnie skwantyfikowac. The first of its proponents assume that the capacity and characteristics of individuals can be measured objectively, and then quantified. Stopien osobistej motywacji uznany byl zawartosc wzglednie stala, dlatego tez satysfakcja plynaca z wykonywania danego zawodu zalezala od odpowiedniego dopasowania zdolnosci jednostki do wymagan na danym stanowisku. The degree of personal motivation was recognized at a relatively constant content, and therefore the satisfaction that comes from practicing the profession depend on the ability of an appropriate size to the requirements of the job. W swej wsplczesnej formie teoria cech i czynnikw podkresla interpersonalny charakter kariery zawodowej i zwiazany z niastyl zycia, ktry warunkuja: rodzina, zagadnienia etyczne, religijne, srodowisko spoleczne i przyjemnosci. In its modern form factors and features of the theory stresses the interpersonal nature of careers and the associated lifestyle, which is conditioned by family, ethical, religious, social environment and leisure. Wyrznia sieszesc kategorii, przy pomocy ktrych mozna dokonacklasyfikacji rodzajw osobowosci i srodowiska pracy : realistyczna, badawczaartystyczna, spoleczna, przedsiebiorczai konwencjonalna. There are six categories by which you can classify the types of personality and work environment: a realistic, artistic research, social, enterprising and conventional. Satysfakcja z wykonywania konkretnej pracy zalezy od stopnia zaleznosci typu osobowosci i srodowiska pracy. Satisfaction with the performance of a particular work depends on the degree of dependence on the type of personality and work environment. Przykladowo, osoba o osobowosci typu artystycznego nie bedzie najprawdopodobniej pasowala do zawodu konwencjonalnego, takiego jak na przyklad kierownik biura. For example, a person with the personality type of art is not likely to fit into a conventional profession, such as, for example, an office manager. Istnieja wyjatki. There are exceptions. Prawdopodobnym jest, przyjmowania pewnych stanowisk i pozostawanie na nich tlumacza pewne czynniki niepsychologiczne, np. ekonomiczne, spoleczne czy kulturowe. Jednak dla pojecia swiadomych decyzji zawodowych istotne jest posiadanie odpowiedniej wiedzy o sobie samym oraz wymogach zawodowych Is likely to adopt certain positions and staying on them niepsychologiczne explain certain factors such as eco nomic, social or cultural. However, the concept of informed decision-making professional is essential to have adequate knowledge about himself and the requirements of professional Za twrcepodstaw teorii cech i czynnikw uznacmozna Franka Parsona, wsplczesnie zastwrczo rozwinal jaHolland. As the founder of the theory of characteristics and factors that can be seen by Frank Parsons, contemporary and creatively developed by Holland. Teoria ta podkresla skojarzenie jednostki z praca, ktra odpowiada jej uzdolnieniom. This theory emphasizes the combination of units of work that corresponds to her talents. Holland wyrznia szesc kategorii, przy pomocy ktrych mozna dokonacklasyfikacji osobowosci i srodowiska pracy. Holland distinguishes six categories by which you can make the classification of personality and work environment. Sato typy: These are the types: realistyczny wykwalifikowany, konkretny, uzdolniony technicznie, mechanicznie (np. inzynier, mechanik, rolnik), realistic skilled, practical, technically gifted, mechanical (eg, engineer, mechanic, farmer) konwencjonalny zorganizowany, praktyczny, ulegly (np. ksiegowy, kasjer, pracownik biurowy), conventional an organized, practical, compliant (eg, accountant, cashier, office worker), przedsiebiorczy przekonywujacy, otwarty, werbalny (np. akwizytor, zarzadzajacy, przedsiebiorca), enterprising convincing, open, verbal (eg, traveling agent, manager, entrepreneur) badajacy naukowy, abstrakcyjny, analityczny (np. badacz, programista komputerowy, technik laboratoryjny), Examination a scientific abstract, analytical (eg, researcher, computer programmer, lab technician) artystyczny twrczy, o rozwinietej wyobrazni i estetyce (np. muzyk, malarz, pisarz) Artistic creative, with a developed imagination and aesthetics (eg, musician, painter, writer) spoleczny oswiatowy, zorientowany na uslugi, nawiazujacy kontakty z ludzmi (np. dozorca, nauczyciel, pielegniarka). social educational, service-oriented, referring to people contacts (eg, janitor, teacher, nurse). Teoria psychodynamiczna Psychodynamic theory Teoria ta najlepiej udokumentowana jest w pracach Anne Roe i Roberta Hoppocka. This theory is best documented in the work of Anne Roe and Robert Hoppocka. Roe sadzi, ze zainteresowania zawodowe rozwijajasiew wyniku interakcji miedzy doroslymi a dziecmi. Roe believes that a professional interest developed as a result of interaction between adults and children. Potrzeby zawodowe stanowia odzwierciedlenie checi realizacji potrzeb nie zaspokojonych przez rodzicw w okresie dziecinstwa. Reflect the needs of professional willingness to meet the needs of not zaspokojonych by parents during childhood. Z psychodynamicznego punktu widzenia lata wczesnego dziecinstwa wywieraja decydujacy wplyw na cale zycie jednostki. From the point of view psychodynamicznego early childhood years have a decisive influence on the life of the individual. Dlatego tez Roe uwaza, ze okres ten jest zrdlem nieswiadomej motywacji, wplywajacej na taki wybr zawodu, ktry umozliwilby wyrazenie i zaspokojenie owych potrzeb. Therefore, Roe believes that this period is a source of unconscious motivation, affecting the choice of a profession that would allow the expression and satisfaction of those needs. Roe opisala trzy rodzaje relacji rodzice/dziecko: Roe described the three types of relations between parents / children: emocjonalne ukierunkowanie na dziecko relacja ta moze przybrac jedna z dwch form nadopiekunczosc, kiedy rodzice robia dla dziecka zbyt wiele iw ten sposb naklaniaja je do uleglosci i zaleznosci, lub wygrowane wymagania, kiedy rodzice podkreslaja wage osiagniec dziecka. emotional focus on children the relationship may take one of two forms of overprotection, when parents do for a child too much and thus induce them to submissiveness and dependency, or excessive requirements, when parents emphasize the importance of the achievements of the child. Dzieci wychowywane w tego typu relacji na ogl odczuwaja potrzebe ciaglego uzyskiwania informacji zwrotnych i nagrd. Children raised in such relationships usually feel the need for a continuous feedback and rewards. Jako dorosli wybieraja czesto zawody, ktre zapewniaja uznanie ze strony innych, jak na przyklad dzialalnosc artystyczna. As adults often choose occupations that offer appreciation from others, such as art work. unikanie dziecka w jej ramach takze mozna wyrznic dwie formy: lekcewazenie dziecka, kiedy rodzice staraja sie zaspokoic potrzeby dziecka jedynie w bardzo ograniczony sposb i odrzucenie dziecka, kiedy rodzice nie podejmuja zadnych wysilkw zaspokojenia potrzeb potomstwa. avoidance of a child under it also can be divided into two forms: neglect of the child when parents are trying to meet the needs of the child only a very limited way, and the rejection of the child when parents do not take any effort to meet the needs of children. Roe uwaza, ze jednostki tak wychowane wybiora kariery naukowe lub techniczne iw ten sposb dazyc beda do osiagniecia satysfakcji zyciowej. Chetnie zajmuja sie one rzeczami i koncepcjami. Roe believes that such educated individuals will choose a technical or scientific careers, and thus will seek to achieve life satisfaction. We deal with these things and concepts. akceptacja dziecka moze miec charakter dorazny lub bardziej opiekunczy: w obu przypadkach wspiera niezaleznosc dziecka. acceptance of the child may be either temporary or more care: in both cases supports the independence of the child. Dzieci z takich rodzin na ogl szukaja zawodw, ktre lacza osobiste i niepersonalne aspekty zycia, jak np. Children from such families are generally looking for jobs that combine personal and niepersonalne aspects of life, such as uczenie czy doradztwo. teaching or counseling. Teoria rozwoju Theory Development Dwie najbardziej znane teorie oparte na koncepcji rozwoju osobistego wiazasiez nazwiskami Donalda Supera i Eli Ginzberga. The two most well known theories based on the concept of personal development associated with the names of Donald Super and Eli Ginzberg. W porwnaniu z innymi teoriami, podejscia rozwojowe sana oglbardziej wszechstronne, przywiazujawiekszawagedo zachowanzwiazanych z kariera zawodowa rozciagnietymi w czasie oraz wskazuja na istotna role koncepcji na samego siebie. In comparison with other theories, developmental approaches tend to be more comprehensive, attach greater importance to the behavior of career rozciagnietymi in time and indicate the important role the concept of self. Wedlug tej teorii rozwj zawodowy to proces wdrazania obrazu samego siebie. According to this theory, professional development is the process of implementation of the image itself. Poglady ludzi na to, kim sazostajaodzwierciedlone w tym co robia. The views of people of who are are reflected in what they are doing. Kazdy czlowiek w rozwoju zawodowym przechodzi piec etapw, przy czym dla kazdego z nich wyrznic mozna zadanie rozwojowe, ktre musi zostac zrealizowane. Everyone in the professional development goes five stages, with each of them can be distinguished developmental task that must be met. wzrost (od urodzenia do 14 roku zycia) na tym etapie, ktry dzieli sie na podetapy fantazji (wiek 4 10 lat), zainteresowan (wiek 11 12 lat) i mozliwosci (wiek 13 14 lat), dziecko wytwarza mentalny obraz siebie w relacji z innymi ludzmi. growth (from birth to 14 years) at this stage, which is divided into podetapy fantasy (ages 4 10 years), interest (Age 11 12 years) and opportunities (Age 13 14), produces a mental image of a child themselves in relationships with other people. W trakcie procesu wzrostu dziecko zyskuje takze orientacje w swiecie pracy. In the process of child growth and gains in the world of work orientations. poszukiwania (wiek 15-24 lat) dzieli sie on na trzy czesci: wstepny (wiek 15 17 lat), przejsciowy (wiek 18 -21 lat), oraz etap prb (wiek 22 24 lat). exploration (age 15-24) It is divided into three parts: the initial (age 15 17 years), transition (ages 18 -21 years), and the stage of testing (age 22 24 years). Glwnym zadaniem na tym etapie jest zbadanie swiata pracy i ustalenie preferencji zawodowych. The main task at this stage is to explore the world of work and establish occupational preferences. zajecie pozycji (establishment) (wiek 25 44 lat) dzieli sie on na dwa dalsze etapy, etap prb (25 30 lat) oraz zdobywania (wiek 31-44 lat), iw ich trakcie realizowac nalezy zadanie zajecia pozycji w preferowanym i odpowiednim polu zawodowym. Gdy pozycja ta jest juz zapewniona, jednostka moze skoncentrowac sie na zdobywaniu coraz lepszych pozycji, az do momentu osiagniecia maksymalnej pozycji w danym zawodzie. to gain a foothold (establishment) (age 25 44 years) divided it into two further phases, phase tests (25 30 years), and acquisition (age 31-44 years), and during the task should be implemented to address the position in the preferred and appropriate professional field. If this position is already assured, the body can concentrate on acquiring more and better positions, until a maximum position in the profession. utrzymanie (wiek 45 64 lat) , w ramach ktrego glwnym zadaniem jest utrzymanie tego, co zostalo juz osiagniete. maintenance (age of 45 64 years), in which the main task is to maintain what has already been achieved. odchodzenie (wiek 65 lat do smierci), jest czasem uwalniania sie od pracy i znalezienia innych zrdel satysfakcji. leave (the age of 65 until his death), is a time release from work and find other sources of satisfaction. Dzieli sie on na dwa etapy: spowolnienie (wiek 65 70 lat) i odpoczynek (wiek 71 lat do smierci). It is divided into two stages: slow (the age of 65 70 years) and leisure (age 71 years until his death). Teorie kognitywne i nauki spolecznej Theories of cognitive and social science Teorie rozwoju kariery zawodowej oparte na modelu kognitywnym i nauki spolecznej zostaly sformulowane w latach szescdziesiatych. Theories of career development model based on cognitive and social science have been formulated in the sixties. Dwa sposrd najbardziej znanych modeli kognitywnych majatakze podstawy w modelu rozwoju, przy czym Tiedeman i jego wsplpracownicy oparli sie na modelu rozwoju kryzysw Erica Eriksona, ktra uwzglednia w szerokim znaczeniu wplyw dojrzewania biologicznego i oddzialywanie otoczenia spolecznego (w tym matki, ojca i innych osb z najblizszego kregu rodzinnego) we wzajemnych powiazaniach na rozwj psychiczny dziecka i bieg rozwojowy zycia zawodowego. Two of the best known cognitive models also have a base model of development, with Tiedemann and his colleagues relied on a model of development crises Eric Erikson, which takes into account the broad sense of the impact of biological aging and the impact of social environment (including mother, father and other people with the closest family circle) in their relationship to the childs psychological development and life course development. Czlowiek wedlug tej teorii przechodzi przez osiem stadiw rozwojowych , a wraz z nimi przez osiem kryzysw, od ktrych rozwiazania zaleza cechy jego osobowosci w przyszlosci. Pierwsze cztery stadia wystepuja w okresie niemowlecym, wczesnym dziecinstwie, w wieku zabaw i mlodszym wieku szkolnym, piate stadium w okresie dojrzewania, natomiast ostatnie trzy stadia wypadaja na wiek dojrzaly oraz starosc. According to this theory, a man goes through eight stages of development, and with them for eight crises, from which a solution depend on the characteristics of his personality in the future. The first four stages occur during infancy, early childhood, play age and younger school age, the fifth stage of the puberty, while the last three stages fit into adulthood and old age. Szczeglne znaczenie ma stadium piate tj. okres dojrzewania, gdyz wwczas nastepuje przejscie z okresu dziecinstwa do dojrzalosci i ma to wplyw na rozwj osobowosci i przebieg kolejnych okresw rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka. Of particular importance is the fifth stage of puberty, ie, as the following passage from childhood to adulthood and have an impact on personality development and course of subsequent professional development of man. W tym stadium zaczyna formowac sie poczucie wlasnej tozsamosci, zas u osb majacych trudnosci w tym procesie moga wystapic trudnosci z podjeciem trafnych decyzji zawodowych. At this stage begin to form their own sense of identity, and in people having difficulties in this process may have difficulty making informed decisions unions. Wystepuje tu siedmio etapowy model podejmowania decyzji zawodowych: badanie (wiek 14 18 lat), krystalizacja (wiek 18 21 lat), wybr (wiek 18 25 lat), wyjasnianie (wiek 18 25 lat), indukcja (wiek 21 30 lat), zmiana (wiek 21 -30 lat), oraz integracja (wiek 30 40 lat). There is an seven consecutive model of professional decision-making: the study (age 14 18 years), crystallization (age 18 21 years), selection (age 18 25 years), explain (age 18 25 years), induction (age 21 30 years), change (age 21 -30 years), and integration (the age of 30 40 years). Etapy te zachodzana siebie, lecz w ramach kazdego z nich jednostka musi podejmowacdecyzje. These stages overlap, but in the context of each individual must make decisions. Nacisk na kognitywna restrukturyzacje jednostki od wewnatrz do zewnatrz stanowi szczeglny wklad Tiedemana w teorie kariery zawodowej. Emphasis on cognitive restructuring of the unit from the inside to outside is a special contribution to the theory Tiedeman career. Autorem innego podejscia rwnie szerokiego, chocmniejszawageprzywiazujacego do kategorii rozwoju i socjalizacji, byl Kromboltz. The author of a new approach as a broad, though less weight przywiazujacego the category of development and socialization, was Kromboltz. Zgodnie z jego stanowiskiem na decyzje zawodowe czlowieka wplywaja cztery czynniki : ladunek genetyczny, warunki i wydarzenia w otaczajacym srodowisku, doswiadczenia w procesie nauki oraz umiejetnosci podchodzenia do zadan (np. system wartosci, nawyki w pracy). According to its position on the human influence professional decisions of four factors: the genetic load, the conditions and events in the surrounding environment, experience in the process of learning and skills approach to tasks (eg, a system of values, work habits). Wedlug Krumboltza, na decyzje zawodowe wplywaja zarwno procesy wewnetrzne jak i zewnetrzne. According Krumboltza, professional decisions affect both internal processes and external. Innymi slowy, jedn ostka posiada pewien wplyw na wydarzenia, ktre uwaza za dzialajace na nia wspierajaco. In other words, the body has a certain influence on events, which are considered as acting on it wspierajaco. Charakterystyka teorii rozwoju zawodowego DE Supera 3 Characteristics of the theory of professional development DE Supera PoprawionawersjeDE Super opublikowalw 1957 r. Zawiera ona 12 twierdzen, ktre charakteryzujarozwj zawodowy czlowieka. Super ED revised version published in 1957, it contains 12 statements that characterize the professional development of man. Rozwj zawodowy jest postepujacym, ciaglym i zwykle nieodwracalny procesem Professional development is a progressive, permanent and usually irreversible process Rozwj zawodowy jest wzorcowym i nieodwracalnym procesem. Professional development is a model and an irreversible process. Celem rozwoju zawodowego jest wiec wybr zawodu, ktrego kryteria oparte sa na tych samych zasadach dla wszystkich jednostek The purpose of professional development is therefore the choice of profession, the criteria are based on the same basis to all individuals Rozwj zawodowy jest procesem zawodowym. Professional development is a process of training. Cecha ta wskazuje na zwiazek miedzy dotychczasowym repertuarem zachowan jednostki a zadaniami, ktre musza byc wykonywane przez nia, a zawieraja nowe wzory, ktre sa prezentowane jednostce. This feature shows the relationship between the current repertoire of behaviors of the individual and the tasks that must be performed by it, and include new designs that are presented to the unit. To pociaga za soba koniecznosc kompromisu pomiedzy czynnikami osobowosciowymi a spolecznymi. This entails a compromise between the personality and social factors. Pojecie ja zaczyna sie krystalizowac w okresie dojrzewania i wwczas moze byc ono okreslone w terminach zawodowych. The concept of I begins to crystallize during adolescence, and then it may be defined in terms of trade. Czynniki obiektywne (obiektywnosc osobowosciowych charakterystyk i obiektywnosc spoleczna) odgrywaja coraz wieksza role w rozwoju zawodowym wraz ze wzrostem wieku jednostki. Objective factors (personality characteristics of objectivity and the objectivity of social work) play an increasingly important role in career development with increasing age of the individual. Identyfikacja z rodzicami lub opiekunami wiaze sie z rozwojem rl spolecznych, takze roli zawodowej. Identification with the parents or guardians associated with the development of social roles, and role. Kierunek i tempo przechodzenia jednostki od jednego poziomu rozwoju zawodowego do drugiego jest uzaleznione od jej inteligencji, pozycji spolecznej i ekonomicznej jej rodzicw, potrzeb jednostki, jej zainteresowan i wartosci, a takze od aktualnych warunkw ekonomicznych kraju. Direction and pace of transition from one level of individual professional development to another is dependent on her intelligence, social and economic position of its parent, the needs of individuals, their interests and values, as well as the countrys current economic conditions. Dziedzina zawodowa, ktra jednostka wybiera, zalezy od jej zainteresowan, wartosci i potrzeb, jej identyfikacji z modelami rl zawodowych rodzicw lub opiekunw oraz poziomu jej wyksztalcenia, a takze od samej struktury zawodowej i jej kierunkw oraz dzialalnosci jednostki do przystosowania sie do tej struktury. Professional field, the entity chooses depends on her interests, values and needs, the identification of models of professional roles of parents or guardians and the level of education, as well as from the same occupational structure and its trends, and business units to adapt to this structure. Chociaz kazdy zawd wymaga charakterystycznych dla niego zdolnosci, zainteresowan i cech osobowosciowych jednostki, istnieje jednak w zakresie doboru zawodowego tolerancja pozwalajaca jednostce na wybranie rznych specjalizacji w danym zawodzie, jak rwniez na rznorodnosc w doborze zawodw przez dana jednostke. Although each profession requires a characteristic of his abilities, interests and personality characteristics of individuals, but there is a selection of professional tolerance allows individuals to choose different specializations in the profession, as well as diversity in the choice of occupations by the unit. Satysfakcja zyciowa i zawodowa zalezy od zakresu, w jakim jednostka moze w swojej pracy dac wyraz wlasnym zdolnosciom, zainteresowaniom, wartosciom i cechom osobowosci. Gdy jednostka moze wyrazic w swojej pracy swj psychologiczny charakter, ma ona poczucie samorealizacji, przynaleznosci i stalosci. And professional life satisfaction depends on the extent to which the entity may, in its work to express their own abilities, interests, values and personality characteristics. When an individual can express their work in their psychological nature, it has a sense of fulfillment, belonging and stability. Ma bowiem moznosc wykonywania takiej roli zawodowej, ktra ja inspiruje i motywuje do efektywnej pracy. Is no possibility of implementing such a professional role, which inspires and motivates them to work efficiently. Stopien satysfakcji jednostki wynikajacy z jej pracy jest proporcjonalny do stopnia, w jakim jest ona w stanie dostosowac do tej pracy swoje pojecie ja . The degree of satisfaction resulting from the body of her work is proportional to the degree to which it is able to adapt to the work his concept of I. Praca i zawd stanowia glwny czynnik ksztaltowania sie osobowosci czlowieka i dla wiekszosci ludzi stanowia centrum zainteresowan. Work and occupation are a major factor in shaping the human personality and for most people, a center of interest. DE Super podkresla w swojej teorii znaczenie trzech rodzajw czynnikw wplywajacych na rozwj zawodowy czlowieka, to : czynnik roli, czynniki sytuacyjne i czynniki osobiste. Czynniki roli angazuje strukture ja poprzez procesy modelowania, nasladownictwa i identyfikacji, ktrych zrdlem sa osoby znaczace dla jednostki. DE Supers theory emphasizes the importance of the three types of factors influencing the professional development of man, are: the role of the factor, situational factors and personal factors. Factors involved the role of structure self through processes of modeling, imitation and identification, which are the source of a significant person for the unit. Pierwszymi modelami moga byc rodzice, opiekunowie. The first models can be parents, guardians. Czynniki sytuacyjne sa utozsamiane przez Supera z polozeniem spoleczno-ekonomicznym rodzicw, przekonaniami religijnymi, atmosfera domowa, postawami rodzicw wobec dziecka i wobec dalszej jego nauki, sytuacja ekonomiczna kraju oraz sytuacja miedzynarodowa. Situational factors are identified by the super of the socio-economic position of parents, religious, homely atmosphere, attitudes of parents towards their children and to further his education, economic situation of the country and the international situation. Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka sklada siewedlug niego z pieciu stadiw : rosniecia, eksploracji, stabilizacji, zachowania status quo i schylkowego. Professional development, human rights, according to him consists of five stages: grow, explore, stability, preserve the status quo and decline. Stadia te przebiegaja nastepujaco: These stages proceed as follows: Stadium rosniecia (od urodzenia do 14 roku zycia). Grow stage (from birth to 14 years). Poczatkowo dominuja potrzeby w tej fazie zycia czlowieka oraz fantazja, znaczenie zas zainteresowan i zdolnosci wzrasta wraz w miare uspolecznienia sie dziecka i nabywania doswiadczen. Jest to okres poczatkw formowania sie i rozwoju struktury ja. Initially dominated by the need in this phase of human life and the imagination, the importance of the interests and capacity increases as the childs socialization and acquisition experience. This is the beginning of the period of formation and development of the structure I. Wystepuja w nim nastepujace podokresy: Occur in the following sub-periods: fantazja (4-10 rok zycia), fantasy (4-10 years old), zainteresowania (11-12 rok zycia), interest (11-12 years old), zdolnosci (15-24 rok zycia) capacity (15-24 years old) Stadium eksploracji (15-24 rok zycia). Exploration stage (15-24 years of age). Jest to okres badania samego siebie i wyprbowania rznych rl zawodowych. This is a test for myself, and try different professional roles. Wystepuja w nich nastepujace podokresy: They occur in the following sub-periods: prbowania (15-17 rok zycia); w tym podokresie zainteresowania, zdolnosci, wartosci i korzysci sa przez mlodziez brane lacznie pod uwage i dokonuje ona prbnego wyboru zawodu, trying (15-17 years old) in this sub-period of interest, abilities, values and benefits are taken by young people together would make it a trial and the choice of profession, przejsciowy (18-21 rok zycia); w tym podokresie mlodziez zaczyna miec bardziej realne sady o rzeczywistosci, poniewaz wzrasta zakres jej umiejetnosci i doswiadczen odnoszacych sie do pracy a zwiazanych z odbywanym szkoleniem zawodowym i rozpoczeciem pracy zawodowej, Transition (18-21 years old) in this sub-period young people begin to have more realistic judgments about reality, because it increases the extent of its skills and experience relating to the work and related odbywanym vocational training and starting a career, prby (22-24 rok zycia); w tym podokresie jednostka rozpoczyna prace, ktra wyprbowuje jako prace calego swojego zycia zawodowego. sample (22-24 years old) in this sub-period body starts to work, which tries to work with her entire working life. Stadium stabilizacji (25-44 rok zycia) . Stabilization stage (25-44 years of age). W tym stadium czlowiek, ktry znalazl odpowiednie dla siebie pole pracy zawodowej, usiluje sie na tym polu ustalic. At this stage the man who has its field of work, trying to establish in this field. Czasami we wczesnym okresie tego stadium jednostka podejmuje zmiany pracy. Sometimes in the early stage of the unit takes to change jobs. Podokresami w tym stadium sa: Podokresami at this stage are: doswiadczenie (25 -30 rok zycia) a) experience (25 -30 years of age) stabilizacja (31- 44 rok zycia) b) stabilization (31 44 years old) Stadium zachowania status quo (45-64 rok zycia). Stadium maintain the status quo (45-64 years of age). W tym stadium jednostka czyni starania o utrzymanie swego ustabilizowanego miejsca w swiecie pracy. At this stage the body is making efforts to keep her stabilized place in the world of work. Stadium schylkowe (od 65 roku). Decadent stage (65 years). W tym stadium powstaja nowe role w zwiazku z przechodzeniem z pozycji czynnego uczestnika procesu pracy w pozycje obserwatora. At this stage, new roles in relation to the shifting of the position of the active participant in the process of working in the position of the observer. Wystepuja w nim dwa podokresy: Occur in the two sub-periods: oslabienie (65 70 rok zycia), a) weakness (65 70 years of age) wycofanie sie (70 rok zycia i wiecej) b) withdrawal (70 years and more) Widac wiec z powyzszego, ze proces rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka obejmuje cale zycie, od dziecinstwa do pznej starosci. So you can see from the above that the process of professional development involves human life, from childhood to old age. Wnioski wynikajace z teorii rozwoju zawodowego 4 The conclusions of the theory of professional development Analizujac cechy wsplne dla omwionych teorii rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka mozna stwierdzic, ze: Analyzing the characteristics common to the theories discussed professional development of man can be concluded that: wszystkie teorie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka okreslaja zespl warunkw wyjasniajacych zachowania zawodowe czlowieka, jego rozwj osobisty i zawodowy; theories of professional development set of conditions that determine human behavior to explain the professional man, his personal and professional development; wszystkie teorie rozwoju akcentuja znaczenie istotnych wlasciwosci czlowieka, stanowiacych psychologiczne kategorie rozwojowe oraz zmiennych spolecznych, charakteryzujacych zrznicowany uklad spolecznego srodowiska czlowieka, theories of development emphasize the importance of the essential human characteristics, which are categories of developmental psychology and social variables that characterize different social system of the human environment, wszystkie teorie ujmuja zawodowy rozwj czlowieka jako przebiegajacy w dluzszym przedziale czasu proces, uwzgledniajacy ilosciowe i jakosciowe zmiany zachodzace w obrebie istotnych wlasciwosci czlowieka (zmiennych psychologicznych), jak i zachodzacych zmian w oddzialywaniach srodowiska spolecznego. theories capture the professional development of man as a runs over the longer time the process takes into account both quantitative and qualitative changes occurring within the essential characteristics of the human (psychological variables), as well as ongoing changes in the social environment impacts. Watkami rznicujacymi poszczeglne teorie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka : Differentiating the various threads of the professional development of theories of human rights: rodzaj wiodacych zmiennych psychologicznych i zmiennych spolecznego srodowiska jednostki, lezacych u podstaw teoretycznych zalozen poszczeglnych koncepcji rozwoju zawodowego, leading type of psychological variables and social variables of the environment unit of the underlying theoretical assumptions of individual concepts for professional development, uwzglednienie badz nieuwzglednienie stabilnosci w procesie rozwoju zawodowego czlowieka. incorporate or failure to take account of stability in the professional development of man. Do zmiennych psychologicznych uwzglednianych w mniejszym lub wiekszym zakresie przez poszczeglne teorie rozwoju zawodowego wchodzanastepujace jednostki: For the psychological variables included in greater or lesser extent by the various theories of career development include the following elements: inteligencja, intelligence, zdolnosci, capacity, zdolnosci specjalne, special capabilities, zainteresowania, interest system wartosci i postawy wartosciujace, system of evaluation or the values and attitudes, potrzeby, needs, osobowosc, personality, typ temperamentu oraz czynniki emocjonalne, type of temperament and emotional factors, identyfikacja z modelami rl zawodowych (poczucie tozsamosci) identification of models of professional roles (a sense of identity) W odniesieniu do zmiennych charakteryzujacych oddzialywania srodowiska spolecznego mozna podkreslic: With respect to the variables characterizing the impact of the social environment can be emphasized: wplyw wychowania srodowiska rodzinnego, the impact of family environment, education, postawy rodzicielskie, parental attitudes, polozenie spoleczno-ekonomiczne rodzicw, Socio-economic position of parents, procesy modelowania, nasladownictwa i identyfikacji process modeling, imitation and identification Etapy rozwoju zawodowego 5 Stages of professional development Proces rozwoju zawodowego jak wspomniano wielokrotnie wczesniej jest dlugotrwalym procesem i przebiega, mozna przyjac w trzech etapach: The process of professional development as mentioned earlier is often a long process and takes place, can be seen in three stages: okres przed wyborem zawodu period before choosing a profession okres zdobywania wiadomosci i umiejetnosci w wybranym zawodzie (przygotowanie do zadan zawodowych), for acquiring knowledge and skills in your chosen profession (preparation for professional tasks), okres aktywnosci zawodowej. working life. Te trzy okresy aktywnosci zawodowej czlowieka charakteryzuja: These three periods of human activity is characterized by: przygotowanie zawodowe, professional preparation, adaptacja spoleczno zawodowa, adaptation and social professional, identyfikacja i stabilizacja zawodowa, Professional identification and stabilization, sukces zawodowy professional success mistrzostwo w zawodzie mastery in the profession Natomiast czynnikami warunkujacymi i wzbogacajacymi beda: By contrast, determining factors, and will add value: jednej strony warunki materialne i spoleczne pracy zawodowej, on the one hand the material conditions and social work, drugiej strony wlasciwosci osobowe pracownika, a przede wszystkim : zdolnosci i zainteresowania zawodowe, postawa zawodowa, osobowosc zawodowa. on the other hand the personal characteristics of the worker, and above all: the ability and professional interest, professional attitude, professional personality. Procesami dopelniajacymi lub pochodnymi beda: poradnictwo i doradztwo zawodowe oraz selekcja i orientacja zawodowa, po uwzglednieniu materialnych i spolecznych cech srodowiska pracy i poddajacych sie ksztaltowaniu przez caly okres aktywnosci zawodowej wlasciwosci osobowych czlowieka. Complementary processes, or derivatives thereof are: guidance and counseling, and selection and career information, taking into account the physical and social characteristics of the work and surrendering to the shaping of the entire working life of personal property rights. Zainteresowania zawodowe sa to wzglednie trwale sklonnosci do poszukiwania wiadomosci oraz poglebiania wiedzy i ksztaltowania umiejetnosci w okreslonej dziedzinie dzialalnosci ludzi. Professional interest are the relatively stable tendency to search for messages and deepen their knowledge and skills training in a particular area of human activity. Postawa zawodowa to wyksztalcone w toku indywidualnego i spolecznego rozwoju jednostki tendencje do specyficznych, wzglednie trwalych sposobw i form reagowania w okreslonych sytuacja zawodowych. Professional attitude is developed in the course of individual and social development of individual tendencies to specific, relatively permanent ways and forms of response to specific professional situation. Osobowosc zawodowa to zespl (syndrom) cech czlowieka pracy, uformowanych w toku ksztalcenia zawodowego i rozwijajacych sie w czasie pracy zawodowej, ktry zapewnia mu aktywny kontakt z materialnym i spolecznym srodowiskiem pracy i przyczynia sie do jego twrczych przeobrazen. Personality is a professional team (syndrome) characteristics of the working man, formed in the course of training and developing countries during their working lives, which ensures its active contact with the material and social environment of work and contributes to creative transformations. Glwnymi skladnikami osobowosci zawodowej sa: The main components of vocational personalities are: wiedza zawodowa (oglnozawodowa i specjalistyczna), professional knowledge (general vocational and specialized) umiejetnosci, sprawnosci, przyzwyczajenia i nawyki pracy, abilities, skills, habits and work habits, zainteresowania i zamilowania zawodowe, interest and love of training, zdolnosci, uzdolnienia i talenty zawodowe, abilities, talents and professional talents, postawa spoleczno zawodowa, social attitude professional, motywy ksztalcenia sie (doskonalenia ) zawodowego i pracy. education themes (improvement) training and employment. Poradnictwo i doradztwo zawodowe -to procesy celowego oddzialywania na jednostke zblizajaca sie do podjecia decyzji o wyborze zawodu lub pracujaca zawodowo, lecz na uzyskanie coraz lepszych wynikw wlasnej pracy. Guidance and counseling a process of deliberate impact on the unit approaching the decision to choose an occupation or working professionals, but to get better and better results of their own work. Niestety , system poradnictwa w chwili obecnej nastawiony jest w wiekszosci przypadkw na instrumentalne ksztalcenie a nie rozwj czlowieka. Unfortunately, the guidance system at the moment is set in most cases, the instrumental training rather than human development. Selekcja i reorientacja zawodowa -to procesy tylko pozornie uboczne, bo procesy te okazujasieznaczace, zarwno przy wyborze zawodu, jak i przy weryfikacji przydatnosci zawodowej osb pracujacych zawodowo, a takze w wyniku restrukturyzacji gospodarki i czesto z powodw zdrowotnych. Selection and outplacement it processes only the seemingly incidental, because these processes appear to be significant, both in the choice of profession, as well as the verification of the suitability of professional people employed, and as a result of the restructuring of the economy, and often for health reasons. Uwarunkowania rozwoju zawodowego 6 Conditions for professional development Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka ma liczne uwarunkowania, ktre skupiajasiew zyciu zawodowym ludzi w sposb sprzyjajacy ich rozwojowi, badz tez utrudniajacy. Professional development of man has a number of conditions, which are concentrated in the working life of people in a manner conducive to their development, or impeding. Istnieje szereg czynnikw wplywajacych w zasadniczy sposb na rozwj zawodowy czlowieka. There are several factors contributing significantly to the professional development of man. DE Super wyrznia trzy rodzaje czynnikw, a mianowicie: ED Super distinguishes three types of factors, namely: Czynnik roli, ktry wiaze sie z pojeciem ja iz przyjeciem okreslonej roli zawodowej; agent role, which involves the concept of I and the adoption of specific role of the profession; czynniki osobiste, takie jak: uzdolnienia, zainteresowania, wartosci i postawy jednostki cala osobowosc czlowieka personal factors, such as: aptitudes, interests, values and attitudes of individuals the entire human personality czynniki sytuacyjne, wyrazajace polozenie spoleczno ekonomiczne rodzicw, przekonania religijne, atmosfere domowa, postawe rodzicw wobec dziecka, jego nauki i zawodu oraz oglna sytuacje ekonomiczna kraju. situational factors, expressing the position of the socio economic parents, religious, homely atmosphere, the attitude of parents towards their childs education and occupation, and the overall economic situation of the country. Mozna dokonacinnego podzialu uwarunkowanrozwoju zawodowego czlowieka na zewnetrzne i wewnetrzne, obejmujace lacznie osiem rodzajw uwarunkowan. You can make another division of the professional development of human conditions external and internal, including a total of eight types of situations. Saone nastepujace: historyczne, polityczne, ekonomiczne, techniczne, kulturowe, spoleczne, biologiczne, psychologiczne. They are the following: historical, political, economic, technical, cultural, social, biological, psychological. Do najwazniejszych, decydujacych o rozwoju zawodowym wsplczesnego czlowieka naleza uwarunkowania psychologiczne takie jak: The most important, determining the professional development of modern man are psychological such as: zainteresowania i zamilowania, interest and passion, zdolnosci i uzdolnienia kierunkowe, directional capabilities and talents, plany i aspiracje zyciowe i zawodowe, plans and aspirations of life and work, wiedza i doswiadczenie indywidualne, knowledge and experience of the individual, motywy dzialania, motives, postawy i nastawienia do rzeczywistosci, attitudes and attitudes to reality, cechy temperamentu. temperament traits. Do wymienionych wyzej wyznacznikw nalezy dodac jeszcze te, ktre wyrazaja sie na zewnatrz w typowych dla jednostki zachowaniach. To those benchmarks must add those that are expressed outside the typical individual behavior. Psychologiczna wiedze o czlowieku pracujacym mozna ujac w trzy dzialy: Psychological knowledge about the working man can be put into three sections: Wiedza o osobowosci zawodowej, czyli wiedza o tych cechach osobowosci czlowieka pracujacego, ktre sa wazne dla wykonywania danej pracy zawodowej i ktre w tej pracy przejawiaja sie i ksztaltuja. Knowledge of professional personality, ie knowledge of those working for human personality traits that are important for the performance of the work and who work in this exhibit and shape. Wiedza o pracy zywej, to znaczy wiedza o czynnosciach wykonywanych przez czlowieka pracujacego w danym zawodzie lub na danym stanowisku. Knowledge of living labor that is, knowledge of the activities performed by humans working in the profession or on the job. Wiedza o przystosowaniu pracy do czlowieka, czyli wiedza o takich cechach procesu technologicznego, materialw, narzedzi, warunkw pracy oraz systemu organizacji pracy, ktre sa wazne ze wzgledu na ludzkie mozliwosci i potrzeby. Knowledge of adapting the work of man, ie knowledge about the characteristics of technological processes, materials, tools, working conditions and work organization system, which is important because the human capacity and needs. Procesy adaptacyjne w rozwoju zawodowym 7 adaptive processes in the professional development Z uwagi na zachodzace zmiany w sferze spoleczno -gospodarczej i rzeczywistych warunkw pracy, problem adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej jest ciagle aktualny i wymaga uwagi i wlasciwego podejscia ze strony kierownictwa organizacji (firmy) oraz srodowiska pracowniczego organizacji, bez wzgledu na struktury i formy wlasnosci. Due to the changes in the socio economic and real working conditions, the problem of social adaptation a professional is always up to date and requires attention and appropriate approach from management organizations (companies) and the Staff of the environment organization, regardless of the structure and form of ownership. Duze znaczenie ma takze umiejetnosc organizowania wlasnych dzialan zawodowych, ktrych nadrzednym celem jest oczekiwany efekt rozwoju zawodowego. It is important that the ability of unions to organize their own activities, the overriding objective is the expected effect of professional development. Proces adaptacji oraz jego rezultaty dotyczaszeregu jego aspektw, a mianowicie adaptacji czystozawodowej, spolecznej, psychomotorycznej, fizycznej, uczuciowej, moralnej i kulturowej. The adaptation process and its results include a number of its aspects, namely the adaptation of purely professional, social, psychomotor, physical, emotional, moral and cultural. Wymienione tu procesy adaptacji spoleczno zawodowej wystepuja lacznie i jednoczesnie w tym samym czasie, jako elementy szerszego procesu adaptacji spoleczno zawodowej. These processes of adaptation and social here there are a total professional, and while at the same time, as part of a broader process of social adaptation a professional. Przyjeto wyrzniackilka etapw procesu adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej: Adopted distinguish several stages in the process of adaptation and social professional: Etap pierwszy polega na opanowaniu przez pracownika stanowiska pracy i osiagnieciu takiego poziomu wykonywania zadan zawodowych, ktry charakteryzuje sie okreslona samodzielnoscia i mozliwoscia uzyskania wysokich zarobkw. The first stage consists in mastering the worker jobs and achieve a level of professional tasks, which is characterized by a definite independence and the possibility of obtaining high wages. Etap drugi to juz uswiadomienie sobie wlasnych mozliwosci oraz swoich powinnosci wobec firmy. Step two it has already become aware of their abilities and their duties to the company. Etap trzeci jest okresem rozpoczynajacej sie identyfikacji zawodowej, a wiec okresem mozliwosci osiagania wysokiej wydajnosci pracy, uzyskiwania zadowolenia z wykonywanej pracy zawodowej, jak rwniez aktywnego wlaczenia sie w procesy decyzyjne. The third stage is the period that begins with the identification of a professional, so the period of their ability to achieve high productivity, obtain job satisfaction of professional, as well as active involvement in decision-making processes. Szybkosc adaptacji spoleczno -zawodowej zalezy od aktywnosci samego pracownika, od jego gotowosci do adaptowania sie, do identyfikowania siez wykonywanym zawodem i firma. The speed of adaptation and social professional depends on the activity of the worker himself, from his readiness to adapt to, to identify with their professional and business. Czynniki stymulujace rozwj zawodowy Factors stimulating professional development Do glwnych czynnosci stymulujacych rozwj zawodowy naleza miedzy innymi: The main activities to stimulate professional development includes: wykorzystanie tresci przedmiotw szkolnego nauczania w ksztaltowaniu , rozwijaniu, poglebianiu i utrwalaniu wiedzy oraz umiejetnosci zwiazanych z samoobsluga, uczeniem sie zawodu, praca i czynnosciami zawodowymi (dotyczy to rwniez tresci wychowania przedszkolnego); use of the content of school subjects taught in shaping, developing, deepening and consolidating the knowledge and skills associated with self-service, learning a profession, work and professional activities (including the content of pre-school education); zachecanie mlodziezy do korzystania z indywidualnych, celowo prowadzonych rozmw z doroslymi na temat czynnosci zawodowych i pracy encouraging young people to benefit from individual, intentionally conducted interviews with adults about their professional activities and work zachecanie mlodziezy do korzystania z tresci publikowanych prac poswieconych decyzjom wyboru zawodu i szkoly oraz zwiazanych z nimi rozlicznych uwarunkowan; encouraging young people to use the content published work related to occupational choice decisions of schools and the many related conditions; zachecanie mlodziezy do poddawania sie badaniom psychologicznym dla okreslenia poziomu swoich mozliwosci rozwojowych. encouraging young people to undergo psychological tests to determine the level of their development opportunities. Szczeglnymi czynnosciami stymulacji rozwoju zawodowego doroslych sa: Specific activities to stimulate the development of professional adults are: doksztalcanie sie w szkolach wyzszego szczebla, w tej samej lub pokrewnej dziedzinie i zawodzie; further training in senior schools, in the same or a related field and profession; doskonalenie sie zawodowe na kursach specjalistycznych coraz wyzszego stopnia oraz samodoskonalenie; improve the training of specialist courses and a progressively higher degree of self-improvement; wysylanie pracownikw na praktyki specjalistyczne do zakladw tej samej lub pokrewnej branzy, ale majacych nowoczesniejszy park maszynowy oraz nowsze technologie wytwarzania; sending workers to the practice of specialized establishments of the same or a related industry, but with more modern machinery and the newer generation technologies; wysylanie pracownikw na dluzsze staze krajowe lub zagraniczne; sending workers for longer internships domestic or foreign; powierzanie pracownikom zadan o szerszym charakterze w stosunku do wykonywanych i wyuczonych, celem rozwijania ich potencjalnych mozliwosci zawodowych; assigning tasks to employees of a broader nature in relation to the performance and learned, to develop their potential career opportunities; prowadzenie stalej, uzasadnionej oceny rozwoju pracownikw; conducting solid, reasoned evaluation of staff development; wysokie nagradzanie tych pracownikw, ktrzy wyraznie wyrzniaja sie swoja aktywnoscia, pracowitoscia solidnoscia wykonywania zadan i czynnosci zawodowych. high reward those employees who are clearly distinguished by their activity, work tasks and the reliability of professional activities. Wnioski koncowe 8 Conclusion Rozwj zawodowy czlowieka zwiazany z dzialaniem, zachowaniem utylitarnym, osiaganiem, prbowaniem, celowoscia, stanowi tylko o polowie naszego zycia , druga zas to bycie stawanie sie, inaczej istnienie, wyrazanie, samorealizacja. Professional development related to human activity, utilitarian behavior, achievement, trying, desirability, is only about half of our lives, while the other is being becoming, otherwise the existence, the expression, self-realization. Przekonanie o wysokiej wartosci, godnosci i niezbednosci ludzkiego dzialania jest silnie zakorzenione w naszej tradycji, zas podzial pracy jest konsekwencja rznorodnosci potrzeb, mozliwosci czlowieka i predyspozycji do wykonywania okreslonych zadan i czynnosci. Convinced of the high value the dignity and necessity of human action is strongly rooted in our tradition, and the division of labor is a consequence of the diversity of needs, human capabilities and suitability to perform specific tasks and activities. Praca we wsplczesnej formie przywiazuje do miejsca wykonywania, uzaleznia od pracodawcy, zmusza do pelnienia okreslonych funkcji i swiadczenia uslug. Working in modern form attached to the place of execution, makes the employer, forced to perform specific functions and services. Dazac do rozwoju zawodowego nalezy brac pod uwage takie zawody i specjalnosci, ktre w najmniejszym stopniu gwalca nasza osobowosc i ograniczaja pragnienie wolnosci osobistej. Striving for professional development should take account of such professions and specialties, which have the least violate our personality and the desire to restrict personal liberty. Nigdy i zaden rodzaj pracy nie byl oceniany jednoznacznie i przez wszystkich tak samo. And never any kind of work was not evaluated explicitly, and by all the same. W pogoni za sukcesem zawodowym nie mozna zapomnieco zabawie i zwiazanej z niawesolosciaa takze o czasie na rozmyslanie, doznania estetyczne i nieumotywowanaaktywnosc. In the pursuit of professional success can not forget the fun and gaiety associated with it and also the time for meditation, aesthetic experience and nieumotywowana activity. Literatura 9 Literature J. Balcerk Socjologia pracy; SGPIS Warszawa 1974 J. Balcerk Sociology of work; Warsaw School of Economics Warsaw, 1974 A. Banka Bezrobotni; PRINT-B Poznan 1992 A bubble Unemployed; PRINT-B, Poznan 1992 RN Bolles Spadochron; FISE Warszawa 1993 RN Bolles Parachute; FISE Warsaw 1993 K. Czarnecki Rozwj zawodowy; IWZZ Warszawa 1985 K. Czarnecki Professional Development; IWZZ Warsaw 1985 CL Cooper Stres pracy; PWN Warszawa CL Cooper work stress, OWN Warszawa K. Dabrowski Trud istnienia; WP Warszawa !986 K. Dabrowski Trud existence; HR Warsaw! 986 S. Gladding Poradnictwo zawodowe; DW Elipsa Warszawa 1992 S. Gladding Coach, DW Ellipse Warsaw, 1992 T. Kielanowski i inni Czlowiek tworzy siebie sam; KAW Gdansk 1985 T. Kielanowski and others Man creates himself alone; KLA Gdansk 1985 T. Kotarbinski Mysli o ludziach i ludzkich sprawach; PAN Ossolineum Kotarbinski Thoughts about people and human affairs; Sciences Ossolineum Wroclaw 1986 Wroclaw 1986 J.Kozielicki Psychologiczna teoria samowiedzy; PWN Warszawa 1986 J. Kozielicki A psychological theory of self-consciousness, OWN Warszawa 1986 T. Luckman Spoleczne tworzenie rzeczywistosci; PIW Warszawa 1983 T. Luckman Social create reality; CIP Warsaw, 1983 B. Lapis U zrdel polskich refleksji nad praca; IW Pax Warszawa 1984 B. Lapis At the source of reflection on the work of Polish, Warsaw, 1984 AND PAX R. Lukaszewicz Do gry czy do przodu; KAW Warszawa 1986 R. Lukaszewicz Top or to the front, the KLA Warsaw 1986 A. Maslow -Motywacje i osobowosc; IW Pax Warszawa 1990 A. Maslow-motivations and personality, AND PAX, Warszawa, 1990 M. Ossowska -Normy moralne; PWN Warszawa 1985 M. Ossowska-moral standards, OWN Warsaw, 1985 J. Strelau Temperament, osobowosc dzialania; PWN Warszawa 1985 J. Strelau temperament, personality measures, OWN Warsaw, 1985 Z. Wiatrowski Pedagogika w zarysie Z. Wiatrowski Romance at a Glance K. Valaskakis i inni Propozycje dla przyszlosci; PWN Warszawa 1988 K. Valaskakis and others Proposals for the future, OWN Warsaw, 1988 Original Polish text: Do wymienionych wyzej wyznacznikw nalezy dodac jeszcze te, ktre wyrazaja sie na zewnatrz w typowych dla jednostki zachowaniach.