Friday, August 30, 2019


She replaced the corset with lighter clothing that wasn't so restrictive. Throughout the years dresses kept getting shorter and the backs lower. â€Å"By 1 925 dresses were the shortest in history – an act of the devil, some thought. † Many people were so outraged that they passed laws in the states of Ohio and Utah that the hem length of ladies gowns had to be seven inches from the floor but these responses from mature adults simply increased young women's fondness for their short skirts and cosmetics. After all, what fun is it to rebel if nobody notices or cares? But what are some major reasons for this changes in women fashion?The first one is that after the war women continued to work outside their home, so the clothes had to be altered to allow for an ease of movement. Also with the lack of men due to the war, women began wearing more alluring clothing to attract a husband. The ratification of the 1 9th Amendment also played a major role as women soon began wearing loose pantsuits called ‘pajama suits', a direct result of the newly gained right to vote and the strong cries for further female empowerment. Probably, one of the first images that pops into your head when you hear the word 1 sass fashion is the Flapper which is the symbol of he roaring twenties.It embodied the decades modern fashion elements such as short sleek hair, a short shapeless dress, a flat chest, and exposed limbs. Flappers also had a reputation that added to their style as well; they smoked from long cigarette holders, applied makeup in public and danced to jazz with reckless abandonment of propriety. Men of this time wore suits, day suits, formal suits, all different kinds of suits. Along with their suits, they wore a hat according to their class in society: the upper class wore top hats, middle class wore a fedora, and the working class wore a flat cap or no cap at all.TO omelet their ensemble they wore black patent leather shoes or saddle shoes. As well as the c lassic suit, flannel, twill, knickerbockers, and sweaters were a more commonly seen casual wear among men of all ages, Then around 1925 â€Å"Oxford bags† were introduced to the public, after being worn as a kind of uniform for Oxford University students. This style grew and grew and before you knew all the young men were wearing them. As the decade progressed, the automobile increasingly became another definer of status and social class in America, both for young people and their parents. Henry Ford's Model T, which dominated the U. S. Reek until it went out of production in 1 927, gave middle-class and even lower-middle-class citizens affordable, reliable transportation. The quintessential expression of American energy and optimism in the 1 sass was the skyscraper, the great tower that aspired toward heaven and dominated the earth (rather, the urban streets) below. Fashion What is Fashion All About? What is it with fashion? It's something that we all deal with everyday. From birth to old age, the way we dress says something about each and every one of us. Even those people who say that fashion doesn't matter to them, still have to choose what they wear every day. Fashion says a lot about who we are and how we are feeling. One thing that is guaranteed is that fashion is always changing. We are always being subjected to new trends everywhere we look! Magazines, what the stars are wearing, movies and television, and people that we are in contact with on a daily basis may influence what is â€Å"hot† and what is â€Å"not†.A little known fact about fashion is that after the movie, Men In Black premiered, the sunglass company, Ray Ban, practically doubled its sales. Many people have a hand in the fashion trends of today, and we wonder who really does dictate fashion trends. Rock Musicians, TV Stars, and Supermodels are among the trendsetters. In today's society, political figures and royalty, such as Duchess Kate, are among those we watch to see what they are wearing. Princess Diana was also considered a fashion icon, what she wore and where she wore it was daily news.Even hundreds of years ago women would pour over fashion magazines for insight into the clothes that were trending at that time. King Louis XIV was a well known fashion connoisseur. His tastes ran toward the extreme from velvets and rich brocades, to handmade laces! The kind of clothes you wear reveal a lot about a person. Sometimes it reveals the â€Å"group† you are in. For instance in high school these groups have names like â€Å"Goth,† â€Å"skaters,† â€Å"popular,† and the â€Å"outsiders†. This is a stereotype, but it happens in high schools all over the country.If you were to look at a person you might be able to tell what his occupation as by the way he dressed. For instance, a person wearing a suit and tie might be a businessman, a person dressed all in white might be a painter, or a person with grungy clothes, piercing and tattoos might be a Goth or a pithead. The way we look at a person because of the way they might dress may influence whether we accept or reject them. This is part of the way society is today. The Why and How The fashion industry is a huge and booming business.There are millions of people involved in different aspects of the business, from buying and selling to production. Everyday millions of people design, produce, and transport clothing to stores all over the world. Advertising is a key element when it comes to dictating what is hot and what is not. We see ads for clothing everywhere. The ads are in magazines and newspapers, on television, billboards and even on buses! It is next to impossible to predict what is going to be in fashion at any one time. No one can say exactly why the mini skirt and high boots worn in the ass's became so popular, or how blue Scares becam e so popular is the U. S.Even the hip-hop style that originated n the Bronx made it to the Haute Couture big fashion shows of London and Rome! Fashion is a fickle thing and is the product of people wanting to look good and also conform to what is considered the norm in today's society. Noted International Fashion Editor, Cynthia Durian defines fashion as a state of mind, a spirit, an extension of one's self. I think that puts it into perspective. â€Å"The apparel oft proclaims the man. † -Shakespeare, Hamlet Many thanks to Courtney and to Cody McKee, who again was my revision buddy. They both made very helpful suggestions that allowed me to write a better essay. Fashion The changing dynamics of the fashion industry have forced retailers to desire low cost and flexibility in design, quality, and speed to market, key strategies to maintain a profitable position in the increasingly demanding market. This article reviews the literature on changes that have happened in the fashion apparel industry since the sass, highlighting the emergence of a concept of throwaway or fast fashion. It describes fast fashion from a supplier as well as a consumer's perspective, and draws attention to several potential research issues.Keywords: fast fashion; supplier; consumer; quick response; fashion season The fashion apparel industry has significantly evolved, particularly over the last 20 years, when the boundaries of the industry started to expand (Decline and Minima 999). The changing dynamics of the fashion industry since then, such as the fading of mass production, increase in number of fashion seasons, and modified structural characteristics in the supply chain hav e forced retailers to desire low cost and flexibility in design, quality, delivery and speed to market (Doyle, Moore, and Morgan 2006).In addition to speed to market and design, marketing and capital investment have also been identified as the driving forces of competitiveness in the fashion apparel industry (Sinai 2006). Franks (2000) suggested ‘sense and respond' as the key tracery to maintain a profitable position in the increasingly dynamic and demanding market. A key defining characteristic of rapid responsiveness and greater flexibility, in this context, is to maintain closer relationships between suppliers and buyers (Wheelwright and Clark 1992).Looking at the basic structure of the fashion industry until the late sass, traditionally fashion apparel retailers used their capability of forecasting consumer demand and fashion trends (known as ready-to-wear) long before the actual time of consumption in order to compete in the market (Coercing 2001). However, recent years h ave seen fashion retailers compete with others by ensuring speed to market with their ability to provide rapidly the fashion trends revealed by fashion shows and runways.According to Tapping (1999), such retailers could be credited with the adoption of ‘quick fashion' that is an outcome of an unplanned process on the reduced time gap between designing and consumption on a seasonal basis. *Corresponding author. Email: [email  protected] Du SINS 0959-3969 pant/less 1466-4402 online 2010 Taylor & Francis DOE 10. 1080/09593960903498300 towpath. Thenceforward corn 166 V. Bradshaw and A. FurthestToday's fashion market is highly competitive and the constant need to ‘refresh' product ranges meaner that there is an inevitable move by many retailers to extend the number of ‘seasons', that is, the frequency with which the entire merchandise within a store is changed. With the emergence of small collections of merchandise, fashion retailers are encouraging consumers to visit their stores more frequently with the idea of ‘Here Today, Gone Tomorrow. This indicates a shorter life cycle and higher profit margins from the sale of fast selling merchandise, skipping the markdown process altogether (Sydney 2008).In addition, desire to have variety and instant gratification with price mavens is motivating consumers to prefer retailers such as Ezra and H (National Post 2009). Several studies have examined various aspects of the buyer-supplier relationship with quick or fast fashion, such as the apparel design process relative to quick response (Formal and Venial 1996), the role of the supplier in fast moving fashion (Doyle, Moore, and Morgan 2006), buyer behavior (Bruce and Daly 2006), and financial performance (Hayes and Jones 2006).However, there appears to be a gap in the literature focusing on the overall concept f fast fashion' that has emerged in the fashion industry from a consumer perspective. Among numerous studies on fast fashion, only a few stud ies have focused on the consumer aspects that drive the changes in the fashion industry (for example, Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006). The purpose of this paper is to explore the changes that have occurred in the fashion apparel industry in the past two decades and attempt to understand how fast fashion emerged to the extent that it is today.Specifically, the study examines the changes in the fashion apparel industry leading to the evolution of throwaway or fast fashion'. A brief review of the literature serves to systematize and appraise the existing work. This study further attempts to align the research capabilities with market growth potential for fast fashion and proposes different venues for conducting research to acquire a better understanding of fast fashion as a consumer-driven approach, not only supplier-driven.Overview of the fashion apparel industry In the course of the last two decades, the fashion apparel industry across the globe has undergone profound transformation d ue to various changes in the business environment. To understand the areas for research n fast fashion for the future, it is important to consider how it has evolved. The following sections discuss the changes that have occurred in the fashion industry since the sass.Fading of mass production Until the mid sass, success in the fashion industry was based on low cost mass production of standardized styles that did not change frequently due to the design restrictions of the factories, such as Levies 501 Scares and a man's white shirt, although there were exceptional cases of rapid changing haute couture (Brooks 1979). Apparently, consumers during that time ere less sensitive toward style and fashion, and preferred basic apparel. Bailey and Etcher (1992) reported a sudden increase in the import of fashion oriented apparel for women as compared to the standardized apparel in the sass.The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 167 This reduced the demand for cl assic though simple apparel as consumers started becoming more fashion-conscious (Bailey 2001). For instance, the women's legwarmer industry introduced colors and textures to basic hosiery to coordinate with every outfit (Donnelley 1996). Unfortunately, this change in fashion oriented apparel undistributed to an increase in mark-downs in the market, which became necessary due to the failure to sell fashion apparel during the forecasted season (TOT 1987).This argument was further supported by Malone (1998, 1999) who provided evidence that mass production of fashion products was not a solution to gain profits in the fashion business. Fashion seasons As fashion is considered to be a temporary cyclical phenomena adopted by consumers for a particular time (Spoolers 1979), it becomes evident that the life cycle for fashion is quite small. Since the sass, a typical life yes for fashion apparel had four stages: introduction and adoption by fashion leaders; growth and increase in public acce ptance; mass conformity (maturation); and finally the decline and obsolescence of fashion.Also, the fashion calendar during this time was primarily based on the fabric exhibitions, fashion shows and trade fairs, that consisted of the basic pattern of Spring/Summer and Audiometer ranges which typically resulted in developing a seasonal range in one full year. However, towards the beginning of the sass, retailers started focusing on expanding their product range with updated products and faster responsiveness to the newness' of the fashion trends; and providing ‘refreshing' products instead of only cost efficiencies for manufacturing (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006; Hines 2001; Hoffman 2007).In order to increase the variety of fashion apparel in the market, the concept of adding more phases to the existing seasons (that is, the period of time during which fashion products are sold) in a fashion calendar came into existence. The addition of 3 to 5 mid-seasons forced immense pressu re on suppliers to deliver fashion apparel in smaller batches with reduced lead time (Tyler, Heeled, and Bahamas 2006).For instance, Liz Collarbone developed six seasons instead of Just two (Bailey 2001). These changes to the number of mid-seasons arose partly from the changes in consumers' lifestyles and partly from the need to satisfy consumers' demand for fashion clothing for specific occasions. Structural characteristics Towards the late sass, the fashion apparel industry was dominated by several large retailers which increased the competition levels in the market (Barnes and Legendary 2006).In order to survive the competition, other fashion apparel retailers switched from product-driven to buyer-driven chains, developed alliances with suppliers in efferent markets, and promoted their distinctive brands (Tyler, Heeled, and Bahamas 2006). This resulted in an increase of profits from unique combinations of high-value research, design, sales and marketing that would allow them and the manufacturers to act strategically by linking with overseas factories (Grief 1999, 43).Tyler, Heeled, and Bahamas (2006) illustrated that the fashion apparel industry developed an infrastructure around the late sass with an emphasis on promoting responsiveness (quick response) through reduced lead times, along 168 with maintaining low costs. Hereafter, the phenomena of sourcing manufacturing ND processes in fashion apparel industry to offshore places with low labor costs became a trend, thereby resulting in a substantial cost advantage.Despite the merits of outsourcing, it led to significantly longer lead times, complicated supply chains due to geographic distances, inconsistency and variability in processes at both ends of the chain, and complex import/export procedures (Bristle, Squished, and Frito 2003; Bruce and Daly 2006). In fact, the idea of cost savings through outsourcing manufacturing to low wage nations became deceptive as the savings sometimes were significantly low compared with the cost of obsolescence, forced mark-downs, and inventory carrying costs (Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004).Tyler, Heeled, and Bahamas (2006) highlighted product development as the weakness for the longer lead times to deliver fashion apparel to point-of-sale to consumers. As further explained, they illustrated that all the key players in a supply chain (that is, fashion and textile designer, retail buyer and manufacturers) worked in sequence in order to contribute their role, resulting in excessive costs, lack of effective communication and reworks due to inaccurate product developments.Furthermore, instead of translating the trends into the market quickly, fashion retailers failed to sell the merchandise during the appropriate season, adversely impacting the profits (Frito, May, and Straighten 1995). Not surprisingly, the situation became worse due to the rapid changing lifestyles and consumers' choices for fashion and clothing in the market. All these shortcoming s forced the industry toward restructuring in order to improve their operational performance (Tapping 2006).Some of the examples of restructuring that emerged around the sass include Just-in-time techniques and quick a response tit shorter lead times. For example, the number of fashion apparel retailers in the USA that started implementing a quick response (CRY) strategy grew from 60% to 72% from 1994 to 1995 Cones 1995). In recent years, these changes in the fashion apparel industry in the USA in terms of outsourcing manufacturing to low wage countries and demand-driven flexible supply chains have shown that quick responsiveness is possible even in the presence of long physical distances.Fast fashion Fashion is defined as an expression that is widely accepted by a group of people over time and as been characterized by several marketing factors such as low predictability, high impulse purchase, shorter life cycle, and high volatility of market demand (Fernier and Sparks 1998). Thus, in order to be profitable in the industry, fashion apparel retailers need to take the ‘speed to market' approach to capitalize on fashion that is not in the stores of their competitors.It has been further emphasized that market responsiveness and agility through rapid incorporation of consumer preferences into the design process in product development increases the profit margins for retailers (Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004). Looking at history, fashion runways and fashion shows were the biggest inspiration for the fashion industry. Along with this, these trend shows were primarily restricted to designers, buyers and other fashion managers.However from 1999 onwards, fashion shows and catwalks became a public phenomenon, where photographs of the recent fashion shows could be seen in magazines and on the web leading to demystification of the fashion process (Sydney 2008). As a result, fashion- 169 conscious consumers were exposed to exclusive designs and styles inspired fr om runways. Retailers such as Ezra, H, Mango, New Look, and Top Shop were adopting such designs rapidly to attract consumers and introduce interpretations of the runway designs to the stores in a minimum of three to five weeks (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006).Drawing on the foundations of quick responsiveness, the fashion apparel industry shifted from forecasting future trends to using real-time data to understand the needs and desires of the consumers Jackson 2001). The inability to accurately forecast or predict future trends (Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004) or failure to quickly imitate and produce fashion apparel as seen on runways (Richardson 1996) can lead to risk associated with longer lead times and once failure to attract facetiousness's consumers.Using real-time data can eliminate this possible risk. United Kingdom retailers The UK fashion industry has been widely acknowledged to have initiated this unique strategy in the fashion industry (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006) . Since its beginning, the fashion apparel industry has been characterized by high levels of dominance by large retailers in the I-J with inflexible supply chains (Hines and Bruce 2001). Around the sass, apparel manufacturers and retailers, primarily from the I-J witnessed price pressure from the strong players in the market.In order to stay in competition, I-J retailers such as New Look and George shifted sourcing of merchandise to the Far East for a low cost advantage. In doing so, supply chains became more complex due to extensive geographical distance, thereby forcing these retailers to introduce practices such as just-in-time TIT), computer integrated manufacturing (COM), total quality management (TTS) in manufacturing along with emphasis on shorter supply lines and quick response in the market (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004).As an outcome, retailers in the I-J started providing increased variety and fashionably to their customers, peeping in mind the low cost of the merchandise . In addition, they also added mid- season purchasing to their previous two-season calendars, resulting in providing high fashion at a low price throwaway market'. Since then the throwaway market' (now called fast fashion) has become a trend or norm (Tokomak, Wrigley, and Guzzling 2008). In sum, the concentrated UK fashion † market resulted in street fashion as an attempt to gain a competitive edge along with market share through speed to market (Bristle and Breather 1998).The following sections provide supplier and consumer perspectives in regard to fast fashion. Fast fashion from the supplier perspective Apparel markets have become more varied and faster-changing in the present retail environment. The development of new, quick fashion appears symptomatic of the transition from a production-driven to a market-driven approach in the fashion apparel industry. Retailers have started realizing that flexibility and rapid responsiveness to the market are the areas that are most imp ortant in today's market.During the past two decades, the fashion apparel industry has received increased attention in the context of buyer-supplier relationships, and quick espouse and 170 supply chain management to gain a competitive edge in the market (Crew and Davenport 1991; Frito, May, and Straighten 1995; Shoal, Perry, and Pratt 1998; Perry and Shoal 2000). In academic study, fast fashion has been researched from the perspective of a business model with a quick response strategy to reduce production times (Bailey 2001).Literature on fast fashion reflects association with pressure on lead-time reduction in an organization and coordination with various players in the supply chain (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006; Weenies 1999). The obsolete long- eying cycles for many fashion retailers has forced them to improve responsiveness in reduced time, resulting in an introduction of several practices in the fashion industry that describe shorter, more flexible supply chains such as quick response (Fernier and Gamma 2004), Just-in-time (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004) and agile supply chains (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004; Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004).In order to improve efficiency in the demand-driven market, these practices have often been related to vertical integration focusing on collaboration, information sharing and rust between entities in a supply chain (Bristle, Squished, and Frito 2003). In addition, improvements in communication between retailers and producers through technology such as computer-designing (CAD) and electronic data interchange (DEED') have contributed to shortening lead times (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004).Fast fashion from a consumer perspective Consumers are becoming more demanding and fashion savvy which is forcing fashion retailers to provide the right product at the right time in the market – in other words, provide quick (fast) fashion (The Economist 2005). As the consumer market is fragmented in terms of consumption patt erns, fast fashion is gaining in importance among consumers. With such developments, researchers should identify the full spectrum of consumer behavior towards fast fashion.The literature on fast fashion highlights various aspects of supply chain management, supported by supply chain theory to improve the business model of fashion retailers. It is worth noting that not many studies have addressed fast fashion as a consumer-driven approach, leaving this an under- researched area. Information and trends are moving around the globe at erroneous speeds, resulting in consumers' ability to have more options and thus shop more often (Hoffman 2007).Changes in lifestyle due to coloratura factors and a need for uniqueness forces fashion retailers to renew merchandise constantly to deal with the growing competition in the market (Spoolers and Burns 1994). The constant, varying demands by consumers has impacted the process of forecasting and product planning shifting; towards replicating famous designs and styles from fashion magazines and fashion shows in small quantities more frequently (Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004). The perception of throwaway fashion varies mongo different generations.For example, young people of the population that constitute Generation Y would prefer a higher number of low-quality, cheap and fashionable clothes as compared to baby boomers, who would prefer to purchase fewer number of higher quality clothes (Crew and Davenport 1992). From conservative consumers' perspective, fast fashion is viewed as a Waste' because rather than buying one high quality item to satisfy a wardrobe need, consumers buy multiples that are lower quality and then throw old merchandise away as quickly as they bring in new ones (Sydney 2008).In 171 agreement with Barnes and Lea-Greenwood (2006) and based on different perspectives of consumers toward fast fashion mentioned in this study, it is apparent that fast fashion is a consumer-driven approach, in addition to a su pplier-driven approach. Future research related to fast fashion Review of existing research on different aspects of fast fashion indicates that the past 20 years have seen substantial progress in knowledge generation about the topic, as evidenced by the increasing number of Journal publications over time and the variety of topics addressed, though these are mostly restricted to the supply chain domain.Literature n fast fashion implies that rapid responsiveness techniques such as Just-in time, quick response, and agile supply chains can be valuable to the fashion industry because such techniques can create a competitive edge in the market (see, for example, Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004; Christopher, Lawson, and Peck 2004; Frito, May, and Straighten 1995; Shoal, Perry, and Pratt 1998).However, minimal evidence addresses consumer behavior towards fashion that is quickly changing (see, for example, Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006). By knowing how and to what extent rapid changing fashion affects consumers' purchase behavior and satisfaction levels, tillers can develop strategies that can lead to improved profitability. The phenomenon of fast fashion has been extensively discussed in the fashion press.However, the existing academic literature on fast fashion is somewhat limited and calls for additional research on aspects such as factors that motivate consumers' purchase intention such as exclusivity, price-consciousness, hoarding merchandise for future use, consumers' perceived risk due to trade-off between quality and price, consumer expectation and satisfaction after the consumption process, and consumers' efficiency in terms of cost-benefit analysis.The dramatic change in the fashion apparel industry, coupled with environmental concerns giving rise to conscious consumers in terms of fair trade, the green market and organic clothing, implies that researchers will need to broaden, redesign and align their research to match the fashion markets in the twenty-first ce ntury. Further research can also examine the pricing strategy used for fast fashion apparel along with analysis of consumers' willingness to pay more for environmentally friendly and sustainable fast fashion apparel (for example, organic and green cotton apparel used by Ezra and H&M) (see Ethical Style 2009).Currently, little is reported in the literature regarding the segmentation of consumers based on the acceptance of fast fashion. Therefore, it is important to conduct research to analyses the acceptance of fast fashion across different consumer segments. Another area of research interest could be to see whether consumers perceive fast fashion brands as counterfeit due to lower price and quality offered by the retailers. Also, it will be worth understanding how consumers differentiate value retailing and fast fashion retailing as both aim to offer lower prices.Conclusion Fast fashion is a concept that will continue to affect the assign apparel industry over the next decade and wi ll have a direct effect on the way consumers purchase and react to trends. Although continued research relative to the supply-side of fast fashion is important, emphasis should be placed on examining consumers' 172 perception of fast fashion. Empirical understanding of consumer characteristics and their motivation to make purchase decisions for throwaway fashion can help retailers in developing effective marketing strategies to perform more effectively in the market. References Bailey Fashion Throughout this essay, a thorough analysis will be made in relation to specific research on cultures of work in a particular work place. The workplace that will be focused on throughout this essay is a ladies fashion boutique. The main argument will focus on discourses of management throughout the concepts of what is considered as work in the retail sector, how the working environment is managed throughout the fashion industry, commitment in the workplace and relationship of teamwork.All these aspects of work will be tied in together to form a research based argument in relation to the fashion boutique. In order to produce a contextual remark of the notion of work, research will be based on primary research from an interview with the manager of the ladies fashion boutique and observations of the boutique. Throughout the use of the interviewing being incorporated into this essay, theoretical concepts and scholarly articles will be used to back up the focus on discourses of management within the perspective of what is considered as work in the work place.Due to ethical reasons, I will be making reference to the manager of the boutique by the name of Anna. In reference to the notion of work within the ladies fashion boutique, before focusing n that, firstly a brief overview about the company, the workplace and what it provides to customers and the fashion industry. The ladies fashion company offers a diverse range of fashion clothing and accessories for contemporary Australian woman. The wide clothing range caters for women that are 25 years of age and up as well as offering sizes ranged from 8 to 16 to suit their individual needs.The retail sector has become a significant focus throughout the fashion industry and the way work is structured around it. Work within the retail industry needs to be efficient in order to create a successful irking environment for both employees and customers. According to the United States Department of Labor, in their book on work, in relation to the retail sector, they claim that â€Å"whether selling shoes, computer equipment, or automobiles, retail salesperson assist customers in finding what they are looking for.They also try to increase the sales by describing a product's features, demonstrating its uses, and promoting its value† (2011, p. 543). Alternatively, in the case of this ladies fashion boutique, Anna and her team focus on forming a successful customer base and sell customers clothing in order to suit their needs. Within retail, the customer is always a significant factor. In order to meet the customer's requirements, the notion of work by the employee needs to be efficient within the workplace in the way they sell and promote the particular product.For instance; if an employee is selling a white linen dress from the fashion boutique to a customer, then in order to successfully sell that dress, they would need to ensure it is the correct size and style that suits that particular customer. How ever, this is why the discourse of work within retail is important as it becomes a process of service in work. Similarly, Erickson article focuses on the concept of ‘dance of service', as he refers to the concept of it by using the example of a restaurant.In his article, he mentions that â€Å"imagine the restaurant like a stage; the line between back and front is demarcated not by a curtain but rather the place where kitchen tile turns into dining room carpet† (2004, p. 77). In relation to the ladies fashion boutique, their act of service works in a similar motion. Interviewee, Anna was asked what their workplace was like at the boutique, she spooned by saying; â€Å"the physical space I work for is open plan and it is visible to the public. I work indoors and the store is based in a shopping centre surrounded by glass windows.We have one computer at work which is used by all the team† (2011, Personal Interview). In reference to the response of the workplace in the fashion boutique, alternatively in relation to Erickson notion of ‘dance of service', the workplace is held in a substantial open plan area and the employees work freely in order to move around to serve the customers, followed by processing the sale through the computer system. Ultimately, this notion of what is considered as work and how the working environment is managed also ties in with the notion of commitment within the workplace.Commitment is an important factor of work which needs to be taken into consideration not only in the retail sector but within every working sector through various Jobs. In relation to the main argument of this essay in relation to cultures of work, commitment becomes a common theme of discourse throughout the culture of work within the fashion boutique, both in a theoretical framework and primary research taken from the manager of the boutique. To draw on primary research, the interviewee was asked about her role in the boutique and general working requirements.She responded; â€Å"The work I do at the moment is in a managerial position at a fashion retail boutique, I work for a successful Australian manufacturer and retail company. The hours I work are 40 hours full time work a week and my hours do not change, however my working days do change. I have worked for the same employer for 8 years and I thoroughly enjoy the workplace that I work in and I am consistently committed to my work† (2011, Personal Interview). In addition to this,Meyer and Allen in their book about commitment in the workplace claim that â€Å"the view that commitment is a psychological state that (a) characterizes the employee's relationship with the organization, and (b) has implications for the decision to continue membership in the organization (1997, p. 1 1). Consequently, it is important to recognize that commitment in the workplace is essential. If you are going to work in a particular workplace, in relation to this essay; a ladies fa shion boutique, then you need to ensure that you are committed to that work and what work is required of you o fill your daily Job requirements.Evidently, when interviewee Anna was asked about the commitment towards the workplace, she responded by saying; â€Å"l work as a team, which I thoroughly enjoy. However, as I work in a fashion retail store, I need to wear the clothes that we sell in the store. In relation to commitment in our workplace, all team members are committed and the relationship that we have is important, of which is; honesty, reliability and friendliness† (2011, Personal Interview).All these aspects that are addressed are reiterated through Meyer and Allen's representation f commitment being labeled as three different components of which are: â€Å"affective, continuance and normative† (1997, p. 1 1). Through this, within the workplace it is important to understand that if you are commitment to your work then you belong within that particular organiz ation. To break down these three different components in relation to the fashion boutique, this can be discussed through my observations of the workplace.In relation to the affective component, this referred to the way the employees felt within the workplace and their involvement within the workplace environment (Meyer and Allen, 1997, p. 1). In relation to this, throughout the observations, employees at the ladies fashion boutique were committed and enthusiastic in assisting customers with their needs for fashion clothing (2011, Personal Observations). Similarly, as for the continuance component of commitment, this involves the cost within the workplace (Meyer and Allen, 1997, p. 1 1).In reference to this, from the observations, the employees involved were not showing any sign of leaving the workplace. The employee's commitment within the fashion boutique workplace was purely based on assisting the customers in buying and trying on loathes, daily paperwork involved within the Job a nd re – stocking of clothes out on the floor. Within the workplace there did not show to be any sign of employees working only for the factor of money, it was there passion for the Job and satisfying the customer's needs (2011, Personal Observations).Alternatively, the notion of normative commitment refers to the responsibility and requirements that are displayed from the employees in order to stay within the organization (Meyer and Allen, 1997, p. 1 1). In particular, it is referred to as the high level of responsibility that s required from both the manager and their employees. If the level of normative commitment is evidently high throughout the employees and the workplace then employees of the fashion boutique will feel the need to remain within the workplace.Overall, in conjunction with all three of these components of commitment, it displays a thorough view on how commitment becomes an important factor within not only the fashion industry but also in any other workplace . Alternatively, within the workplace, alongside what is considered as work and the commitment of employees towards the workplace, teamwork is a significant factor hat falls under the concept of discourse of management within the working environment.When working in an organization, in this case a fashion boutique, employees working together as a team in order to fulfill budget requirements as well as their customer service throughout the Job, this leads to creating a successful business and workplace environment. Interviewee, Anna was asked how her team worked within the fashion boutique. She responded by saying; â€Å"l mainly work with women and I work very closely with a great team, with each and every team member with different strengths towards the workplace† (2011, Personal Interview).Similarly, through this, Managing in his book about effective team work claims that â€Å"working as a team has definite advantages for you as an employee, for your company, and you're yo ur customers. Most people have to learn new interpersonal and process skills to become involved, fully effective and contributing team members (1994, p. 2). In saying this, from Anna's previous response in relation to how her team work within the boutique, I order to fulfill their goals, constant assistance is evident amongst all employees and they all help each other in the workplace to develop a safe, comfortable and successful environment.Similarly, this leads to building a workplace of high morale. Ultimately, Brace's article discusses the trust and respect that manager's need to display towards their employees in order to ensure that there is unique performance by employees and a high employee morale continuously shown (2002, p. 10). Alternatively, within a workplace environment, if employers and their employees do not work well together in order to fulfill daily sales requirements, then conflict amongst employees could arise which could lead to employee resignation. Hence, eff ective teamwork in the workplace leads to a successful company within the detail fashion industry.In reference to teamwork amongst the workplace, an additional quality aspect that ties in with the notion of team work is Job satisfaction amongst employees. According to Specter, â€Å"Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their Jobs and different aspects of their Jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their Jobs† (1997, p. 2). In relation to the fashion boutique, it has become evident from the responses of the interview that Anna is sufficiently happy and enjoying her Job as well as her employees.The way she works with her employees builds an efficient morale within the workplace. The manager's interaction towards fellow employees needs to be successful in a way to form a relationship bond with one another in the workplace. Throughout the notion of Job satisfaction, when working in either a fashion boutique or another particular workplace, attending work on a daily basis, you need to make sure that you feel satisfied about your Job and the people you are working with.For instance; when selling a garment to a customer, you use your retail skills to communicate with the customer in order to sell her a garment. If the customer is satisfied and buys that particular garment then you as an employee will feel that your Job has been satisfied which will encourage you to work even better in the workplace. Ultimately, in relation to Job satisfaction, interviewee Anna answers her thoughts about it within her workplace.She says; â€Å"In the years I have worked at this fashion boutique, myself and my employees have always been satisfied in the work we do and the acknowledgment we get from customer feedback is very positive. When we also sell over an average budget, we receive bonuses which we feel satisfied that we are working efficiently in the oracle† (2011, Personal Interview). In particular, this ties in with Specter's view of job satisfaction, where the employees in the fashion boutique are highly content with their Jobs. In relation to Anna's response to bonuses, they are a satisfying work incentive within the workplace.For instance; when an employee sells over the required average sale budget, they may receive an incentive of a voucher to use towards garments within the store. It is a way of not only ensuring the employees are satisfied but that the employees feel that they are presenting successful takings for the company on a daily basis. Overall, a significant claim that McDowell makes in relation to this is the way â€Å"work itself is as much about the cultural production of employees as about the material production of goods and services† (2002, p. 06). In relation to the fashion boutique, employees would work together to produce the skills and knowledge required to sell the fashion and accessories to consumers. In conclusion, throughout this essay, it has be come evident that there are various discourses of management within the workplace environment. Specifically, in relation the Ladies Fashion Clothing Boutique being the main case study throughout the above discussion in overall relation to the topic of cultures of work within the workplace environment.Thorough contextual research has been analyses and discussed in relation to what is considered as work, commitment in the workplace and the notion of teamwork within the workplace, all in accordance to the above relevant case study. Evidently, inclusion of primary research methods from interview questions and observations of the workplace have thoroughly been put into context with theoretical concepts within cultures of work as well as consistent support from scholarly articles and books. Fashion Fashion: What you wear defines who you are. Fashion is an enormous icon in our society. It is practically the thing we can never go without. We make our very first impression by what we wear not by our personalities. They say you are what you eat but truly you are what you wear and fashion has provided us with a little something to define everyone. There are so many styles of fashion: Goth, Chic, Prep, Hippies etc. Every style has its own description so why would we not be classified into that style and its description that fits us perfectly.What we wear can also make it easy for us to identify people and whether they are ho we want to socialism with, I. E. An individual wearing all Goth (black colored clothing) would not befriend someone who wears preppy clothing (beige colored clothing). Fashion plays an even bigger role when it comes to uniforms; do you that think without uniforms we would be able to identify the authority on our streets? Do you think that we would have the same r espect for a doctor in a Sears and t-shirt?A number of religions prescribed a specific clothing style aside for us. Our designers are creative geniuses in all aspects. There is no obvious reason as to why we buy the yep of wardrobes we do. It could be to make a statement to get noticed, I. E. Prostitutes are easy to spot with their provocative style of fashion. Others might Just be copying the current trend – this makes it hard for to prove the theory of â€Å"what you wear defines you† – but then we could Judge these individuals as those who have not found a style that defines them.We wear clothes to beautify ourselves to attract the attention we seek. We dress a certain way that mirrors the mood we are in, happy = bright colored clothing & sad = grey and baggy clothing, there are many seasons as to why we take hours Just deciding what to wear because it is essential in our lives to create the correct mood, persona, background, etc. Why wouldn't one agree with this statement?We choose the clothes we wear by the way we want to be perceived by others, fact. Several options about how could one not define ones self with it. They say don't Judge a book by its cover but in the end we still go ahead and judge this is the same for fashion which is why we make sure we always look good. We do not need loincloths anymore to Just cover up it is the 21st century! There is a whole new meaning to clothing ourselves. WORDS: 450 Fashion Progress of a society mainly depends upon the society ¤? ¬was youngsters. They are the one taking oath to assist the whole nation ¤? ¬was boat of dream and hope reach their destined desire and anchor the sea-shore. So,people might reckon that young people should be expressed properly to their surroundings regardless by their own or fashion consciousness. ‘ think,young people should be as much fashion conscious as by which they could get attraction of their Juniors and followers,to be worthy of being followed as the torchbearer of the whole nation.The current nature of our society is to be driven away or get carried away by the good looks and appearances of a person,though it is hard to listen but a true fact. So,we must be more practical rather than being emotional. As,part of being practical,we have to emphasis on what people hanker after,what they demand for. That is why,young people as,considered as the torchbearer of our nation,should be more fashion conscious to ge t attractive,so that,they might be followed as the society ¤? ¬was idol. Humans are by nature characterized as getting attracted by opposite gender room the very beginning of the origin of human society.Now-a-days,everyone prefers a person ¤? ¬was outlooks and wealth as well more than anything,which is a real fact. The more you are being fashion conscious,The better you tend to be attractive for the opposite gender. So,as part of finding a decent partner,one might be fashion conscious since it is helpful to let you find one. The visualization of current society regarding one person ¤? ¬was smartness is day by day deteriorating. People,however,now,think that the one with more fashionable ideas is he one with more smartness. So,it is like,if you are being fashion conscious you are known as a smart guy in your society.As years,decades waves through and oscillated ahead,our society improves and youngsters are the one who does it through their intelligence,merit and different types of innovative,creative and productive ideas. Since,beautification of our appearance is the major concern for us as part of representing our smartness,which I think,by observing the current situation of our society,various types of reality shows in our TV channels such as,Lush Channel I Superstar,and so on are getting popular day by day,where your face is becoming a product.Some people of our society visualize one ¤? ¬was realm and influence over the society are the effects or resultants of habitants amount of wealth,inheritance. They don ¤? ¬wet pay heed to the outlook or appearances of a person,As fast as one person ¤ sees diligence,intelligence,merits and talents are concerned,these are only reflections of that person ¤? ¬was level of thinking ability,skills on various things,eligibilities on executing tough problems that they face in life. And if a person is vague with his life,he/she can show their skills and potentiality through his works and deeds.And as a n example,if one ¤? ¬was outlook and appearances would be everything needed in life,football player of Arsenal football club,Servings,could not have become a model. Refuting the counter points of the statement is as much needs as wended to understand the importance of beige fashion conscious as representative of our young generations. As I said earlier,the society is getting drowned down by the outlook,hence being sentimental or hypocrite won't help someone to find his/her influence on the wealth that they possess.Since,smartness is one of the key features one might own in succeeding with their life,fashion conscious people are the ones,who are considered as smart people now-a-days. Since,fashion consciousness is virtue of a so called fashionable person these days,so by born or as sustaining a habitual fact,they might be responsible,serious or conscious to all of their duties and responsibilities. In properly described situation of our current society regarding evaluation of a p erson does contain our fondness to one ¤? ¬was get awards fashion consciousness is very essential for our teenagers and younger ones to be more expressive. F they are to bear and carry the whole nation forward,they must have something in their character which might provoke their surroundings such as and even superiors to get attracted by. Thus they would enable themselves to grab some followers,who would become their correspondents in building the future of the nation and could get spreader out all over the world as their messenger,as per my visualization upon the topic is concerned. Fashion Fashion:on and off the runway? Fashion: On and Off the Runway What comes to mind when you think of fashion? Do you picture the latest issue of W Magazine, a runway for â€Å"starving Models†? , or is fashion to you less of a privilege and more of a key to acceptance? Dries Van Note once said â€Å"Consider clothing not as an element of social status but more as an expression of one's personality. † Jaeger p. 54) The fact is, fashion isn't about putting something on our bodies to cover us up, but a form of expression!Just like a singer singing on a stage to communicate, and a writer choices his opinion in his Journal, a Fashions expresses his/herself by Cloths and Accessories. First of all, the main goal and soul reasoning off budding fashion designer is to express their own self in a beautiful way and have people not only to accept their product but use it to help express themselves. Stylist Kathy England stated â€Å"To have ‘style' is quite a rare thing. It's when someone's visual senses are heightened. It's instinctively knowing how to put one's whole self- clothes, shoes, makeup, hair, nails, etc. Together in harmony and having the self-confidence to do it. It has absolutely nothing to do with money. † Jaeger p. 194). This Golden Philosophy is shared throughout the fashion world from designers like Mulberry to Gucci and Calvin Klein to Diesel (Cereal p. 86). Journalist Jeanne Baker defined fashion as the following: â€Å"Clothing is the general term for various coverings designed to protect or adorn the human biology. † (Baker p. 10) In order to have a successful fashion designing career, one must have at least a bachelor's degree.It has been decided that a bachelor's degree is needed to fully understand and memorize the agreements and form of the body. From coast to coast, Colleges, that teach exactly that art, called The Art Institutes, are in a numerous amount of states, especially in bigger metropolitan areas. Personal ly, I believe that if a person has the talent and knowledge of clothing the body, no type of schooling is needed but is very useful as a plan to fall back on in the case of an emergency Jaeger p. 94). Margaret Van Den Busch, creator and designer of the popular H&M Department stores, once stated that in his opinion â€Å"†¦ O can definitely learn how to be a designer by working rather than tidying, but it might take you longer† when asked if fashion school was necessary in becoming a fashion designer Jaeger p. 94). One very exciting and stressful bonus of being a fashion designer is that you are more than likely to become your own boss. It is very important to the future fashion designer that they possess the quality to be one's own boss. This meaner you are obligated to make up your own schedule, work your own hours, hire clients and learn to budget your wages.Some turn to alternative sources such as a secretary, assistant, or someone you trust to manage these things. An other important factor in becoming a designer is working in laid back, harmonious environments. Working in such an environment really has a lot of influence on your designs and the rate you produce these products. Although I have never been in a situation where I have had to rush in planning or designing a piece, I could imagine the stress put on a designer when a deadline is pressed is greatly nerve-racking.Angela Mission, daughter of one of the most celebrated and long standing designers in Italy, once quoted â€Å"l know that I like to work in harmony†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Lam lucky in that when y parent's built the company in 1968, they built it in the woods, in a place they would have loved to live. † Jaeger p. 45) From personal experience, I have noticed that when I am more relaxed sewing goes smoother and pieces flow together easier. It is always a good idea to work in a well-lighted Comfortable, Non-Stressful, setting.Last, but definitely not least, the Fashion industry contr ibutes greatly to society. In the realm of business, the field of fashion marketing and stocks and bonds stimulates the economy by putting money back into the cycle of things Jaeger p. 253). On the other and, in the mental aspect, by using fashion as a way to express one's inner voice, fashion shapes people's attitudes and self-esteem. For example when you wear a certain theme you are compelled to act on your emotion that made you want to wear that outfit.Although some would argue that the issues with â€Å"skinny models† or provocative, revealing fashion corrupts the self-image of young girls today in defense of designers, I can appreciate the art and feeling that the designer is trying to get across thru the piece. It is also true that In the world of fashion one day you're in and he next day you're out (Baker p. 10). As harsh as it may seem, this is none less than a reality to anyone in the fashion business and the industry has no respect for person.To fashion newcomers su ch as Lady GaGa, April Leaving, and Selene Gomez it is very important that they stay on their toes and keep themselves in the fashion scene. In conclusion, Fashion may seem like the least of some peoples worries and not of importance to society but in reality it's what we wear everyday†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. So the question is, what are you wearing? Sources Consulted Baker, Jeanne. Passion for Fashion: Careers in Style. United States by Tundra Books of Northern New York 2008 Cereal, Olivier.Fashion: Concept to Catwalk. United States by Firefly Book Ltd. 2010 Globing, Pamela. Balancing Paris. United States of America by Thames & Hudson Inc. 2006 Jaeger, Anne-Cline. Fashion Makers Fashion shapers. United States of America by Thames & Hudson Inc. 2009 Eleventh, Melissa. Retreat: Fashion and Anti-Fashion. Untied States of America by Thames & Hudson Inc. 2005 Mower, Sarah. Stylist: Interpreters of Fashion. China by Arizona International Publications Inc. 2007

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